The Avoidable Crisis: German Sources

1 Ruhm, Emily and Leif Erik Rehder. “Germany: Retail Foods,” USDA: Global Agricultural Information Network, August 2017, https://gain.fas.usda.gov/Recent%20GAIN%20Publications/Retail%20Foods_Berlin_Germany_8-7-2017.pdf.

2 von Witzke, Harald et al., “Meat Eats Land,” World Wildlife Fund Germany, September 2011, http://www.wwf.de/fileadmin/fm-wwf/Publikationen-PDF/Meat_eats_land.pdf.

3 “The Growth of Soy: Impacts & Solutions,” World Wildlife Fund International, January 2014, http://wwf.pand a.org/what_ we_do/footprint/agriculture/soy/soyreport/.

4 Ruhm, Emily and Leif Erik Rehder. “Germany: Retail Foods,” USDA: Global Agricultural Information Network, August 2017,  https://gain.fas.usda.gov/Recent%20GAIN%20Publications/Retail%20Foods_Berlin_Germany_8-7-2017.pdf.

5 “All countries exporting Soybeans to Germany, in 2016 by weight,” Chatham House: The Royal Institute of International Affairs, 2016, https://resourcetrade.earth/data?year=2016&importer =276&category=87&units=weight. ; “All countries exporting Soybeans to Germany, in 2015 by weight,” Chatham House: The Royal Institute of International Affairs, 2015, https://resourcetrade.earth/data?year=2015& importer=276&category=87 &units=weight.

6 Ruhm, Emily and Leif Erik Rehder. “Germany: Retail Foods,” USDA: Global Agricultural Information Network, August 2017, https://gain.fas.usda.gov/Recent%20GAIN%20Publications/Retail%20Foods_Berlin_Germany_8-7-2017.pdf.

7 Average numbers based on the imports for the past decade (2007-2016) based on the numbers from the following data base: “South America exporting Soybeans to Germany, in 2016 by weight,” Chatham House: The Royal Institute of International Affairs, 2016, https://resourcetrade.earth/data?year=2016&exporter=sac&importe r=276&category=87&units=weight.

8 Lomeli, Luciana Gallardo and James Anderson. “Restoring Degraded Land in Latin America Can Bring Billions in Economic Benefits,” World Resources Institute, October 2016, http://www.wri.org/blog/2016/10/restoring-degraded-land-latin-america-can-bring-billions-economic-benefits.

9 Lomeli, Luciana Gallardo and James Anderson. “Restoring Degraded Land in Latin America Can Bring Billions in Economic Benefits,” World Resources Institute, October 2016, http://www.wri.org/blog/2016/10/restoring-degraded-land-latin-america-can-bring-billions-economic-benefits.

10 Fehlenberg, Verena et al. “The role of soybean production as an underlying driver of deforestation in the South American Chaco,” Global Environmental Change, Vol 45, pp. 24-24, July 2017, https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0959378017305964.

11 Keith, Slack. “The Indigenous of the Paraguayan Chaco: Struggle for the Land,” Cultural Survival Quarterly Magazine, December 1995, https://www.culturalsurvival.org/publications/cultural-survival-quarterly/indigenous-paraguayan-chaco-struggle-land. ; Greene, Caitlyn. “Beyond the Amazon: Deforestation in Argentina,” The Argentina Independent, September 2018, http://www.argentinaindependent.com/socialissues/environ ment/beyond-the-amazon-deforestation-in-argentina/.

12 Lovera, Miguel et al. “La Situación de los Ayoreo Aislados en Bolivia y en las Zonas Transfronterizas con Paraquay,” Iniciativa Amotocodie, 2016, http://www.iniciativa-amotocodie.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/05/InformeAaisladosZonaFronteraPY-BO-Reduced.pdf.

13 de Waroux, Yann le Polain et al. “Land-use policies and corporate investments in agriculture in the Gran Chaco and Chiquitano,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, Vol. 113(15), April 2016, http://www.pnas.org/content/113/15/4021.full.

14 Zak, Marcelo R. et al. “What Drives Accelerated Land Cover Change in Central Argentina? Synergistic Consequences of Climatic, Socioeconomic and Technological Factors,” Springer Science + Business Media, LLC , Vol. 42(2) pp. 181-189, August 2008, https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs00267-008-9101-y.

15 Baumann, Matthias. “Land-Use Competition in the South American Chaco,” Springer International Publishing Switzerland, July 2016, https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-319-33628-2_13.  

16  Fehlenberg, Verena et al. “The role of soybean production as an underlying driver of deforestation in the South American Chaco,” Global Environmental Change, Vol. 45, pp. 24-34, July 2017, http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0959378017305964?_escaped_fragment_=#!.  

17 Baumann, Matthias et al. “Carbon emissions from agricultural expansion and intensification in the Chaco,” Global Change Biology, Vol. 23(5), pp. 1902-1916, October 2016, http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/ 10.1111/gcb.13521/abstract.

18 “Each Country’s Share of CO2 Emissions,” Union of Concerned Scientists: Science for a healthy planet and safer world, n.d. https://www.ucsusa.org/global-warming/science-and-impacts/science/each-countrys-share-of-co2.html#.WniuxZOpnBJ.

19 “Tree cover loss,” Global Forest Watch Commodities, n.d. http://commodities.globalforestwatch.org/#v=map& lyrs=tcc%2ChansenLoss&x=-60.69&y=-23.5&l=5. ; “Argentina ranks ninth in infamous ‘deforestation list,” Buenos Aires Herald, http://www.buenosairesherald.com/article/198242/argentina-ranks-ninth-in-infamous-%E2%80%98deforesta.

20 “Deforestatión en el norte de Argentina,” Greenpeace Argentina, January 2017,  http://www.greenpeace.org/a rgentina/Global/argentina/2017/1/Deforestacion-norte-Argentina-Anual-2016.pdf.

21 “Aplicación del “Fondo Nacional para el Enriquecimiento y la Conservación de los Bosques Nativos” establecido per la Ley 26.331,” Greenpeace Argentina, November 2010,   https://www.greenpeace.org/argentina/Global /argentina/report/2010/Bosques/Ley_Bosques/aplicacion-ley-de-bosques-fondos.pdf.

22 Guidi, Ruxandra. “Seven million hectares of forests have been lost in Argentina over the past 20 years,” Mongabay, February 2016,  https://news.mongabay.com/2016/02/seven-million-hectares-of-forests-have-been-lost-in-argentina-in-the-past-20-years/.

23 “Deforestation in the Chaco spikes in the wake of “illegal” presidential decree stripping back environmental safeguards,” Illegal Deforestation Monitor, January 2018, http://www.bad-ag.info/deforestation-in-the-chaco-spikes-in-the-wake-of-illegal-presidential-decree-stripping-back-environmental-safeguards/.

24  Riveros, Fernando. “The Gran Chaco,” Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, July 2012,  http://archive.today/2012.07.30-004747/http://www.fao.org/ag/A GP/agpc/doc/Bulletin/GranChaco.htm.

25 Semper-Pascual, Asunción et al. “Mapping extinction debt highlights conservation opportunities for birds and mammals in the South American Chaco,” Journal of Applied Ecology, January 2018, http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/1365-2664.13074/full.

26 “Protecting the Atlantic Forest in Paraguay,” World Land Trust, n.d., http://www.worldlandtrust.org/projects/paraguay/guyra-reta-reserve.

27 Law No. 5.045/13

28 “Plan Belgrano: Avanza la recuperación del tren de cargas en Salta y Jujuy,” Argentinian Government, March 2017, https://www.argentina.gob.ar/noticias/plan-belgrano-avanza-la-recuperacion-del-tren-de-cargas-en-salta-y-jujuy.

29 “Argentina plans railways to expand agriculture in north,” The Western Producer, April 2017,  https://www.producer.com/2017/04/argentina-plans-railways-to-expand-agriculture-in-north/. ; “Plan Belgrano: Avanza la recuperación del tren de cargas en Salta y Jujuy,” Argentinian Government, March 2017, https://www.argentina.gob.ar/noticias/plan-belgrano-avanza-la-recuperacion-del-tren-de-cargas-en-salta-y-jujuy.

30 “Argentina – Soy,” Trase.Earth, 2016, https://goo.gl/SSaoT6.

31 “Argentina – Soy,” Trase.Earth, 2016, https://goo.gl/SSaoT6.

32 “South America exporting Soybeans to Europe, in 2016 by weight,” Chatham House: The Royal Institute of International Affairs, 2016,  https://resourcetrade.earth/data?year=2016&exporter=sac&importer=eur& category=87&units=weight.

33 Mooney, Pat et al. “Too Big to Feed,” International Panel of Experts on Sustainable Food Systems, October 2017, http://www.ipesfood.org/images/Reports/Concentration_FullReport.pdf.

34 Murphy, Sophia et al. “Cereal Secrets: The world’s largest grain traders and global agriculture,” Oxfam Research Reports, August 2012, https://www.oxfam.org/sites/www.oxfam.org/files/rr-cereal-secrets-grain-traders-agriculture-30082012-en.pdf.

35 “Instalaciones: Acopios,” Bunge, n.d. https://www.bungeargentina.com/es/instalaciones/acopios.

36 “Zero Deforestation: Building 21st century value chains,” Bunge, n.d. https://www.bunge.com/sustainability/zero-deforestation.  ; “Ending Deforestation: Cargill is committed to protecting forests and ensuring deforestation-free supply chains,” Cargill, n.d. https://www.cargill.com/sustainability/deforestation.

37 Bellantonio, Marisa et al. “The Ultimate Mystery Meat,” Mighty Earth, February 2017, http://www.mightyearth.org/mysterymeat/.

38 “Ministry confirms illegality of deforestation in farms owned by politically-connected businessman in Argentina,” Illegal Deforestation Monitor, January 2018, http://www.bad-ag.info/argentinas-government-confirms-illegality-of-deforestation-in-farms-owned-by-politically-connected-businessman/.

39  “Argentina: Country Environmental Analysis,” World Bank Group, May 2016, http://documentos.bancomundial.org/curated/es/218361479799045279/pdf/109527-ENGLISH-PUBLIC-ARG-CEA-Country-Environmental-Analysis-English.pdf.

40 Kelland, Kate. “In glyphosate review, WHO cancer agency edited out ‘non-carcinogenic’ findings,” Reuters, October 2017, https://www.reuters.com/investigates/special-report/who-iarc-glyphosate/. ; Cressey, Daniel. “Widely Used Herbicide Linked to Cancer,” Scientific American, March 2015, https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/widely-used-herbicide-linked-to-cancer/.

41 “Macrons says glyphosate to be banned in France within three years,” Reuters, November 2017,  https://www.reuters.com/article/us-eu-health-glyphosate-macron/macron-says-glyphosate-to-be-banned-in-france-within-three-years-idUSKBN1DR259.

42 Kalverkamp, Michael Álvarez et al. “Meat Atlas: Facts and figures about the animals we eat,” Heinrich Böll Stiftung, January 2014, https://www.boell.de/sites/default/files/meat_atlas2014_kommentierbar.pdf.

43 Ueker, Marly Elaine et al. “Parenteral exposure to pesticides and occurrence of congenital malformations: hospital-based case-control stody,” BMC Pediatrics, Vol. 16(125), August 2016, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4983026/. ;  Ruderman, L et al. “Análisis de la Salud Colectiva Ambiental de Malvinas Argentina-Córdoba Una investigación socio- ambiental y sanitaria a través de técnicas cualitativas y relevamiento epidemiológico cuantitativo,” Reduas, August 2012, http://www.reduas.com.ar/wp-content/uploads/downloads/2013/02/Informe-Malvinas-corregido1.pdf.

44 This interview was conducted in the indigenous language Guarani and was later translated into English.

45 This interview was conducted in the indigenous language Guarani, and was later translated into English.

46 “Ley Nº 904/81,” Estuato do las Comunidades Indíegenas, n.d.  http://www.tierraviva.org.py/wp-content/uploads/2013/11/PDF.pdf.

47 Paraguayan Law no. 904/81, article 17.

48 Tyrrell, Kelly April. “Study shows Brazil’s Soy Moratorium still needed to preserve the Amazon,” University of Wisconsin-Madison, January 2015,  https://news.wisc.edu/study-shows-brazils-soy-moratorium-still-needed-to-preserve-amazon/.

49  “Companies pledging to tackle soy and cattle driven deforestation in Brazil’s Cerrado nearly triples in just three months,” Tropical Forest Alliance 2020, January 2018, https://www.tfa2020.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/01/Press-release-marking-the-significant-increase-in-company-signatories-to-the-Cerrado-Manifesto-Statement-of-Support-25-Jan-2018.pdf

50 “South America exporting Soybeans to Germany, in 2016 by weight,” Chatham House: The Royal Institute of International Affairs, 2016,  https://resourcetrade.earth/data?year=2016&exporter=sac&importer=276& category=87&units=weight.

51 “Glyphosate,” European Commission, n.d. https://ec.europa.eu/food/plant/pesticides/glyphosate_en; https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/widely-used-herbicide-linked-to-cancer/. ; Kelland, Kate. “In glyphosate review, WHO cancer agency edited out ‘non-carcinogenic’ findings,” Reuters, October 2017,  https://www.reuters.com/investigates/special-report/who-iarc-glyphosate/.

52 Pritchard, Janet. “Developing EU measures to address forest-risk commodities: What can be learned from EU regulation of other sectors?,” Fern, November 2016, http://www.fern.org/sites/fern.org/files/Developing %20EU%20measures_0.pdf.

53 “Agriculture and deforestation,” Fern, April 2017, http://www.fern.org/capreform.