Alex Armstrong

Una nueva investigación revela deforestación, incendios y problemas de salud pública promovidos por la industria europea de la carne

Una Nueva Investigación Revela Deforestación, Incendios y Problemas de Salud Pública Promovidos Por la Industria Europea de la Carne

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Una nueva investigación realizada por Mighty Earth, Rainforest Foundation Norway y Fern revela deforestación a gran escala, incendios y violaciones de los derechos humanos en el Gran Chaco de Argentina y Paraguay vinculados con la industrial mundial de la carne. Las conclusiones se ven documentadas en el informe titulado “La crisis evitable” que se publica hoy. En dicho informe se muestra cómo las grandes empresas de soja y carne están promoviendo de forma innecesaria una deforestación a gran escala para el cultivo de soja, que se transporta luego por todo el mundo para alimentar al ganado.

Europa importa la mayoría de su soja de América Latina; alrededor de 27,9 millones de toneladas de soja y productos de soja en 2016. La soja se envía a procesadores de pienso y carne y se emplea para criar al ganado, por lo tanto para la carne de pollo, cerdo, vacuno, huevos y productos lácteos que se venden en muchos supermercados y restaurantes europeos. Empresas como Carrefour, Lidl, Marks & Spencer y Aldi tienen la responsabilidad de garantizar a los consumidores que no están vendiendo carne ni productos lácteos de animales criados con esta soja.

En nuestra investigación, encontramos vínculos con las empresas estadounidenses de la industria agroalimentaria Cargill y Bunge, dos de las principales que están promoviendo muchas de estas prácticas nocivas. Estas empresas importan grandes cantidades de soja a Europa. En una investigación anterior, documentamos que Cargill y Bunge promovían una deforestación a gran escala para el cultivo de soja en el Cerrado brasileño, así como en la cuenca amazónica boliviana. Estas empresas se han resistido a los intentos de ampliar una producción que no provoque deforestación.

Investigación

Para la investigación, el equipo empleó técnicas de cartografía vía satélite para identificar las áreas de deforestación rápida y continua. Encontraron que áreas extensas del bioma del Gran Chaco estaban siendo taladas y quemadas para la producción de soja. El Gran Chaco es un ecosistema de extraordinaria biodiversidad, donde viven especies autóctonas como el jaguar, el piche llorón o el oso hormiguero gigante, así como comunidades indígenas como los Ayoreo, Chamacoco, Enxet, Guarayo, entre muchos otros.

El equipo de investigación visitó veinte lugares en el Chaco sometidos a la deforestación para el cultivo de soja. Documentó la destrucción con drones, además de realizar entrevistas sobre el terreno a agricultores y a miembros de las comunidades locales. Los investigadores encontraron plantaciones de soja de gran extensión, incendios provocados para acabar con los bosques autóctonos y la vegetación, así como hábitats quemados y desforestados. Aquí se pueden encontrar imágenes y vídeos de la investigación (todas las imágenes están disponibles para descargar y emplear).

“El nivel de destrucción era impresionante. Documentamos excavadoras en acción despejando áreas extensas de bosque virgen y prados, así como enormes incendios que escupían nubes de humo”, comenta Anahita Yousefi, directora de políticas de Mighty Earth. “Aunque el Gran Chaco ha recibido tradicionalmente menos atención que otros biomas, como el Amazonas brasileño, se trata de un ecosistema de vital importancia y no hay ningún motivo para destruirlo”.

Intermediarios ocultos

En la investigación se averiguó que las agroempresas estadounidenses Cargill y Bunge –dos empresas que promueven la deforestación masiva para el cultivo de soja en el Cerrado brasileño y en la cuenca amazónica boliviana como documentamos en una investigación previa– también son importantes compradoras de esta soja. Tanto Cargill como Bunge cuentan con políticas públicas de sostenibilidad. Sin embargo, cuando entramos en contacto con ellas en relación a los resultados de nuestro informe, no fueron capaces de proporcionar nada de información sobre el grado de trazabilidad de su cadena de suministro. Si no cuentan con una trazabilidad suficiente, resulta imposible que estas empresas puedan conocer el origen real de la soja que adquieren. Cargill y Bunge no han introducido mecanismos fiables para garantizar que no están promoviendo estas prácticas nocivas.

“Mientras los comerciantes de soja no adopten medidas inmediatas para poner fin a la deforestación, se convierte en responsabilidad de las empresas del sector cárnico, de las distribución y de los inversores exigir que los comerciantes de soja garanticen una soja que no haya provocado deforestación. Los inversores, como el Norwegian Pension Fund Global (fondo soberano noruego) deben tomar medidas fuertes frente a Bunge, una empresa en su cartera, por su incapacidad reiterada de abordar el problema de la deforestación”, comenta Ida Breckan Claudi, asesora política de Rainforest Foundation Norway.

Impacto humano

Además de la destrucción medioambiental, el equipo encontró un impacto significativo para la salud pública, así como conflictos sociales provocados por esta producción industrial de soja. Muchas de las comunidades que viven cerca de estas plantaciones, incluyendo los pueblos indígenas que dependen totalmente del bosque, han visto cómo las nuevas plantaciones de soja invadían sus tierras y, en muchos casos, han sido expulsadas de la tierra que acogió a sus familias durante generaciones. Además, en estas comunidades se ha experimentado un importante aumento de problemas de salud, como cánceres, defectos congénitos, abortos y otras enfermedades relacionadas con pesticidas y herbicidas fuertes, como el glifosato, que se emplean para cultivar soja, a menudo fumigados por aviones.

“La UE es uno de los importadores principales de productos provenientes de tierras en las que se ha procedido a una deforestación ilegal. Son un desastre para los bosques, para las personas y para el cambio climático. El uso intensivo de pesticidas para esta producción agrícola también está dañando seriamente la salud de las personas. La UE ha regulado sus importaciones de madera y de pescado obtenido de forma ilegal. Ya va siendo hora de que haga lo mismo con los productos agrícolas”, comenta Nicole Polsterer, encargada de la campaña sobre el consumo de Fern.

Una alternativa comprobada

Por último, la destrucción que está teniendo lugar en el Gran Chaco de Argentina y Paraguay es completamente evitable. Hay más de 650 millones de hectáreas de terrenos previamente despejados en toda América Latina, en los que se podría cultivar sin amenazar a los ecosistemas autóctonos. En Brasil, la industria de la soja, incluyendo Cargill y Bunge, implementó la Moratoria de la Soja de Brasil hace más de una década. Con ese sistema, se traslada la nueva producción a terrenos despejados. Ha gozado de gran éxito y prácticamente se ha erradicado la deforestación para el cultivo de soja en el Amazonas brasileño. Desgraciadamente, esta iniciativa se ha visto limitada al Amazonas brasileño, permitiendo que continúe la deforestación a gran escala en Argentina, Paraguay y Bolivia, así como en el Cerrado brasileño.

Mighty Earth, RFN, Fern y una coalición de otras organizaciones instan a las empresas de soja a que extiendan esta iniciativa exitosa para la eliminación de la deforestación a otras regiones de América Latina en las que se cultiva soja, incluyendo el Gran Chaco, así como el Amazonas boliviano y el Cerrado brasileño.


New Investigation Finds Vast Deforestation, Fires, Public Health Impacts Driven By European Meat Industry

New Investigation Finds Vast Deforestation, Fires, Public Health Impacts Driven By European Meat Industry

A new investigation by Mighty Earth, Rainforest Foundation Norway, and Fern reveals large-scale deforestation, fires, and human rights abuses in Argentina and Paraguay’s Gran Chaco connected to the global meat industry. The findings are documented in “The Avoidable Crisis” report released today, revealing how major meat and soy companies are unnecessarily driving extensive deforestation for soy, which is transported around the world to raise livestock.

Europe imports the majority of its soy from Latin America, which was about 27.9 million tons of soy and soybean products in 2016. This soy is sent to feed and meat processors and used to raise the livestock for the chicken, pork, beef, eggs, and dairy sold by many European supermarkets and restaurants. Companies like Carrefour, Lidl, Marks & Spencer and Aldi have a responsibility to ensure to their customers that they are not selling meat or dairy raised on this soy.

Our investigation found links to American agribusinesses, Cargill and Bunge, two of the primary companies driving many of these harmful practices. These companies import large quantities of soy into Europe. We previously documented Cargill and Bunge driving massive deforestation for soy in the Brazilian Cerrado and Bolivian Amazon Basin in an earlier investigation. These companies have resisted efforts to expand deforestation-free production.

 

Investigation

For the investigation, the researchers used satellite mapping to identify areas of ongoing, rapid deforestation and found large areas of the Gran Chaco biome being cleared and burned for soy production. The Gran Chaco is an extraordinarily biodiverse ecosystem, home to native species such as the jaguar, screaming hairy armadillo, and giant anteater, as well as indigenous communities like the Ayoreo, Chamacoco, Enxet, Guarayo and many others.

The research field team visited twenty sites in the Chaco undergoing deforestation for soy. The team documented the destruction by aerial drone, as well as on-the-ground interviews with farmers and local community members. The team encountered massive soy plantations, fires set to level native forests and vegetation, and burnt and cleared habitats. See here for images and videos from the investigation (all images are available for download and use).  

“The level of destruction was astounding. We documented bulldozers in action clearing large areas of intact forests and grasslands, as well as huge fires billowing smoke into the air,” said Mighty Earth Policy Director Anahita Yousefi. “While the Gran Chaco has traditionally received less attention than other biomes like the Brazilian Amazon, it’s a vitally important ecosystem and there’s no reason to destroy it.”

Hidden Middlemen

The investigation found that American agribusinesses Cargill and Bunge, the two companies we documented driving massive deforestation for soy in the Brazilian Cerrado and Bolivian Amazon Basin in a previous investigation, were also identified as major purchasers of this soy. Both Cargill and Bunge have public sustainability policies, but when we contacted them about our report findings, they failed to provide any information about the level of traceability in their supply chain. Without sufficient traceability, these companies cannot know the true origin of the soy they purchase. Cargill and Bunge have failed to put in place meaningful mechanisms to ensure that they are not driving these harmful practices.

“As long as the soy traders don’t take immediate action to end deforestation, it becomes the responsibility of companies within the meat industry, retailers and investors to demand that the soy traders guarantee deforestation-free soy. Investors like the Norwegian Pension Fund Global should take strong action towards portfolio company Bunge because of their repeated failure to address deforestation,” said Rainforest Foundation Norway’s policy advisor, Ida Breckan Claudi.

Human Impact

In addition to the environmental destruction, the team found significant public health impacts and social conflicts driven by this industrial soy production. Many of the communities living near these plantations, including indigenous peoples who fully depend on the forest, have had their land encroached upon by  new soy plantations, and in many cases have been forced off of the land their families have lived on for generations. In addition, these communities have experienced sharp increases in public health issues like cancers, birth defects, miscarriages, and other illnesses linked to the heavy pesticides and herbicides like glyphosate used to grow soy, often sprayed by planes directly overhead.

“The EU is a leading importer of commodities grown on land that has been illegally cleared of its forests. This is disastrous for forests, people and the climate. The heavy use of pesticides in producing these commodities is also seriously damaging peoples’ health. The EU has regulated its imports of illegally sourced timber and fish.  It is time for it to do the same with forest risk commodities, so that they are free from deforestation, land grabs and other human rights abuses,” said Nicole Polsterer, Fern’s consumption campaigner.

A Proven Alternative

Ultimately, the destruction happening in the Gran Chaco of Argentina and Paraguay is completely avoidable. There are more than 650 million hectares of previously cleared land across Latin America, where agriculture could expand without threatening native ecosystems. In Brazil, the soy industry, including Cargill and Bunge, implemented the Brazilian Soy Moratorium more than a decade ago. This system shifts new production to already cleared lands and has been extremely successful in almost entirely eliminating deforestation for soy in the Brazilian Amazon. Unfortunately, this initiative has been confined just to the Brazilian Amazon, allowing deforestation to continue at scale in Argentina, Paraguay, and Bolivia, and the Brazilian Cerrado.  

Mighty Earth, RFN, Fern,  and a coalition of other organization are calling on soy companies to immediately extend this success in eliminating deforestation to other soy-growing regions in Latin America, including the Gran Chaco, as well as the Bolivian Amazon and Brazilian Cerrado.


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Mighty Earth targets groups or industries wreaking havoc on the forests, oceans or air, and pushes them to change. After the release of Mighty Earth’s Arcus-funded report, “Chocolate’s Dark Secrets,” in September, 2017, the major chocolate companies responded with promises to make change.

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A coalition of groups gathered next to the Des Moines River and the World Food Prize headquarters to honor "World Water Day" Thursday, by calling for corporate ag interests to do more to clean up the environment.

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The Avoidable Crisis

March 2018

Investigation by Mighty Earth, Rainforest Foundation Norway, and Fern reveals large-scale deforestation, fires, and human rights abuses in Argentina and Paraguay’s Gran Chaco connected to the global meat industry.

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The Avoidable Crisis: German Sources

1 Ruhm, Emily and Leif Erik Rehder. “Germany: Retail Foods,” USDA: Global Agricultural Information Network, August 2017, https://gain.fas.usda.gov/Recent%20GAIN%20Publications/Retail%20Foods_Berlin_Germany_8-7-2017.pdf.

2 von Witzke, Harald et al., “Meat Eats Land,” World Wildlife Fund Germany, September 2011, http://www.wwf.de/fileadmin/fm-wwf/Publikationen-PDF/Meat_eats_land.pdf.

3 “The Growth of Soy: Impacts & Solutions,” World Wildlife Fund International, January 2014, http://wwf.pand a.org/what_ we_do/footprint/agriculture/soy/soyreport/.

4 Ruhm, Emily and Leif Erik Rehder. “Germany: Retail Foods,” USDA: Global Agricultural Information Network, August 2017,  https://gain.fas.usda.gov/Recent%20GAIN%20Publications/Retail%20Foods_Berlin_Germany_8-7-2017.pdf.

5 “All countries exporting Soybeans to Germany, in 2016 by weight,” Chatham House: The Royal Institute of International Affairs, 2016, https://resourcetrade.earth/data?year=2016&importer =276&category=87&units=weight. ; “All countries exporting Soybeans to Germany, in 2015 by weight,” Chatham House: The Royal Institute of International Affairs, 2015, https://resourcetrade.earth/data?year=2015& importer=276&category=87 &units=weight.

6 Ruhm, Emily and Leif Erik Rehder. “Germany: Retail Foods,” USDA: Global Agricultural Information Network, August 2017, https://gain.fas.usda.gov/Recent%20GAIN%20Publications/Retail%20Foods_Berlin_Germany_8-7-2017.pdf.

7 Average numbers based on the imports for the past decade (2007-2016) based on the numbers from the following data base: “South America exporting Soybeans to Germany, in 2016 by weight,” Chatham House: The Royal Institute of International Affairs, 2016, https://resourcetrade.earth/data?year=2016&exporter=sac&importe r=276&category=87&units=weight.

8 Lomeli, Luciana Gallardo and James Anderson. “Restoring Degraded Land in Latin America Can Bring Billions in Economic Benefits,” World Resources Institute, October 2016, http://www.wri.org/blog/2016/10/restoring-degraded-land-latin-america-can-bring-billions-economic-benefits.

9 Lomeli, Luciana Gallardo and James Anderson. “Restoring Degraded Land in Latin America Can Bring Billions in Economic Benefits,” World Resources Institute, October 2016, http://www.wri.org/blog/2016/10/restoring-degraded-land-latin-america-can-bring-billions-economic-benefits.

10 Fehlenberg, Verena et al. “The role of soybean production as an underlying driver of deforestation in the South American Chaco,” Global Environmental Change, Vol 45, pp. 24-24, July 2017, https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0959378017305964.

11 Keith, Slack. “The Indigenous of the Paraguayan Chaco: Struggle for the Land,” Cultural Survival Quarterly Magazine, December 1995, https://www.culturalsurvival.org/publications/cultural-survival-quarterly/indigenous-paraguayan-chaco-struggle-land. ; Greene, Caitlyn. “Beyond the Amazon: Deforestation in Argentina,” The Argentina Independent, September 2018, http://www.argentinaindependent.com/socialissues/environ ment/beyond-the-amazon-deforestation-in-argentina/.

12 Lovera, Miguel et al. “La Situación de los Ayoreo Aislados en Bolivia y en las Zonas Transfronterizas con Paraquay,” Iniciativa Amotocodie, 2016, http://www.iniciativa-amotocodie.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/05/InformeAaisladosZonaFronteraPY-BO-Reduced.pdf.

13 de Waroux, Yann le Polain et al. “Land-use policies and corporate investments in agriculture in the Gran Chaco and Chiquitano,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, Vol. 113(15), April 2016, http://www.pnas.org/content/113/15/4021.full.

14 Zak, Marcelo R. et al. “What Drives Accelerated Land Cover Change in Central Argentina? Synergistic Consequences of Climatic, Socioeconomic and Technological Factors,” Springer Science + Business Media, LLC , Vol. 42(2) pp. 181-189, August 2008, https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs00267-008-9101-y.

15 Baumann, Matthias. “Land-Use Competition in the South American Chaco,” Springer International Publishing Switzerland, July 2016, https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-319-33628-2_13.  

16  Fehlenberg, Verena et al. “The role of soybean production as an underlying driver of deforestation in the South American Chaco,” Global Environmental Change, Vol. 45, pp. 24-34, July 2017, http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0959378017305964?_escaped_fragment_=#!.  

17 Baumann, Matthias et al. “Carbon emissions from agricultural expansion and intensification in the Chaco,” Global Change Biology, Vol. 23(5), pp. 1902-1916, October 2016, http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/ 10.1111/gcb.13521/abstract.

18 “Each Country’s Share of CO2 Emissions,” Union of Concerned Scientists: Science for a healthy planet and safer world, n.d. https://www.ucsusa.org/global-warming/science-and-impacts/science/each-countrys-share-of-co2.html#.WniuxZOpnBJ.

19 “Tree cover loss,” Global Forest Watch Commodities, n.d. http://commodities.globalforestwatch.org/#v=map& lyrs=tcc%2ChansenLoss&x=-60.69&y=-23.5&l=5. ; “Argentina ranks ninth in infamous ‘deforestation list,” Buenos Aires Herald, http://www.buenosairesherald.com/article/198242/argentina-ranks-ninth-in-infamous-%E2%80%98deforesta.

20 “Deforestatión en el norte de Argentina,” Greenpeace Argentina, January 2017,  http://www.greenpeace.org/a rgentina/Global/argentina/2017/1/Deforestacion-norte-Argentina-Anual-2016.pdf.

21 “Aplicación del “Fondo Nacional para el Enriquecimiento y la Conservación de los Bosques Nativos” establecido per la Ley 26.331,” Greenpeace Argentina, November 2010,   https://www.greenpeace.org/argentina/Global /argentina/report/2010/Bosques/Ley_Bosques/aplicacion-ley-de-bosques-fondos.pdf.

22 Guidi, Ruxandra. “Seven million hectares of forests have been lost in Argentina over the past 20 years,” Mongabay, February 2016,  https://news.mongabay.com/2016/02/seven-million-hectares-of-forests-have-been-lost-in-argentina-in-the-past-20-years/.

23 “Deforestation in the Chaco spikes in the wake of “illegal” presidential decree stripping back environmental safeguards,” Illegal Deforestation Monitor, January 2018, http://www.bad-ag.info/deforestation-in-the-chaco-spikes-in-the-wake-of-illegal-presidential-decree-stripping-back-environmental-safeguards/.

24  Riveros, Fernando. “The Gran Chaco,” Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, July 2012,  http://archive.today/2012.07.30-004747/http://www.fao.org/ag/A GP/agpc/doc/Bulletin/GranChaco.htm.

25 Semper-Pascual, Asunción et al. “Mapping extinction debt highlights conservation opportunities for birds and mammals in the South American Chaco,” Journal of Applied Ecology, January 2018, http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/1365-2664.13074/full.

26 “Protecting the Atlantic Forest in Paraguay,” World Land Trust, n.d., http://www.worldlandtrust.org/projects/paraguay/guyra-reta-reserve.

27 Law No. 5.045/13

28 “Plan Belgrano: Avanza la recuperación del tren de cargas en Salta y Jujuy,” Argentinian Government, March 2017, https://www.argentina.gob.ar/noticias/plan-belgrano-avanza-la-recuperacion-del-tren-de-cargas-en-salta-y-jujuy.

29 “Argentina plans railways to expand agriculture in north,” The Western Producer, April 2017,  https://www.producer.com/2017/04/argentina-plans-railways-to-expand-agriculture-in-north/. ; “Plan Belgrano: Avanza la recuperación del tren de cargas en Salta y Jujuy,” Argentinian Government, March 2017, https://www.argentina.gob.ar/noticias/plan-belgrano-avanza-la-recuperacion-del-tren-de-cargas-en-salta-y-jujuy.

30 “Argentina – Soy,” Trase.Earth, 2016, https://goo.gl/SSaoT6.

31 “Argentina – Soy,” Trase.Earth, 2016, https://goo.gl/SSaoT6.

32 “South America exporting Soybeans to Europe, in 2016 by weight,” Chatham House: The Royal Institute of International Affairs, 2016,  https://resourcetrade.earth/data?year=2016&exporter=sac&importer=eur& category=87&units=weight.

33 Mooney, Pat et al. “Too Big to Feed,” International Panel of Experts on Sustainable Food Systems, October 2017, http://www.ipesfood.org/images/Reports/Concentration_FullReport.pdf.

34 Murphy, Sophia et al. “Cereal Secrets: The world’s largest grain traders and global agriculture,” Oxfam Research Reports, August 2012, https://www.oxfam.org/sites/www.oxfam.org/files/rr-cereal-secrets-grain-traders-agriculture-30082012-en.pdf.

35 “Instalaciones: Acopios,” Bunge, n.d. https://www.bungeargentina.com/es/instalaciones/acopios.

36 “Zero Deforestation: Building 21st century value chains,” Bunge, n.d. https://www.bunge.com/sustainability/zero-deforestation.  ; “Ending Deforestation: Cargill is committed to protecting forests and ensuring deforestation-free supply chains,” Cargill, n.d. https://www.cargill.com/sustainability/deforestation.

37 Bellantonio, Marisa et al. “The Ultimate Mystery Meat,” Mighty Earth, February 2017, http://www.mightyearth.org/mysterymeat/.

38 “Ministry confirms illegality of deforestation in farms owned by politically-connected businessman in Argentina,” Illegal Deforestation Monitor, January 2018, http://www.bad-ag.info/argentinas-government-confirms-illegality-of-deforestation-in-farms-owned-by-politically-connected-businessman/.

39  “Argentina: Country Environmental Analysis,” World Bank Group, May 2016, http://documentos.bancomundial.org/curated/es/218361479799045279/pdf/109527-ENGLISH-PUBLIC-ARG-CEA-Country-Environmental-Analysis-English.pdf.

40 Kelland, Kate. “In glyphosate review, WHO cancer agency edited out ‘non-carcinogenic’ findings,” Reuters, October 2017, https://www.reuters.com/investigates/special-report/who-iarc-glyphosate/. ; Cressey, Daniel. “Widely Used Herbicide Linked to Cancer,” Scientific American, March 2015, https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/widely-used-herbicide-linked-to-cancer/.

41 “Macrons says glyphosate to be banned in France within three years,” Reuters, November 2017,  https://www.reuters.com/article/us-eu-health-glyphosate-macron/macron-says-glyphosate-to-be-banned-in-france-within-three-years-idUSKBN1DR259.

42 Kalverkamp, Michael Álvarez et al. “Meat Atlas: Facts and figures about the animals we eat,” Heinrich Böll Stiftung, January 2014, https://www.boell.de/sites/default/files/meat_atlas2014_kommentierbar.pdf.

43 Ueker, Marly Elaine et al. “Parenteral exposure to pesticides and occurrence of congenital malformations: hospital-based case-control stody,” BMC Pediatrics, Vol. 16(125), August 2016, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4983026/. ;  Ruderman, L et al. “Análisis de la Salud Colectiva Ambiental de Malvinas Argentina-Córdoba Una investigación socio- ambiental y sanitaria a través de técnicas cualitativas y relevamiento epidemiológico cuantitativo,” Reduas, August 2012, http://www.reduas.com.ar/wp-content/uploads/downloads/2013/02/Informe-Malvinas-corregido1.pdf.

44 This interview was conducted in the indigenous language Guarani and was later translated into English.

45 This interview was conducted in the indigenous language Guarani, and was later translated into English.

46 “Ley Nº 904/81,” Estuato do las Comunidades Indíegenas, n.d.  http://www.tierraviva.org.py/wp-content/uploads/2013/11/PDF.pdf.

47 Paraguayan Law no. 904/81, article 17.

48 Tyrrell, Kelly April. “Study shows Brazil’s Soy Moratorium still needed to preserve the Amazon,” University of Wisconsin-Madison, January 2015,  https://news.wisc.edu/study-shows-brazils-soy-moratorium-still-needed-to-preserve-amazon/.

49  “Companies pledging to tackle soy and cattle driven deforestation in Brazil’s Cerrado nearly triples in just three months,” Tropical Forest Alliance 2020, January 2018, https://www.tfa2020.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/01/Press-release-marking-the-significant-increase-in-company-signatories-to-the-Cerrado-Manifesto-Statement-of-Support-25-Jan-2018.pdf

50 “South America exporting Soybeans to Germany, in 2016 by weight,” Chatham House: The Royal Institute of International Affairs, 2016,  https://resourcetrade.earth/data?year=2016&exporter=sac&importer=276& category=87&units=weight.

51 “Glyphosate,” European Commission, n.d. https://ec.europa.eu/food/plant/pesticides/glyphosate_en; https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/widely-used-herbicide-linked-to-cancer/. ; Kelland, Kate. “In glyphosate review, WHO cancer agency edited out ‘non-carcinogenic’ findings,” Reuters, October 2017,  https://www.reuters.com/investigates/special-report/who-iarc-glyphosate/.

52 Pritchard, Janet. “Developing EU measures to address forest-risk commodities: What can be learned from EU regulation of other sectors?,” Fern, November 2016, http://www.fern.org/sites/fern.org/files/Developing %20EU%20measures_0.pdf.

53 “Agriculture and deforestation,” Fern, April 2017, http://www.fern.org/capreform.

 


The Avoidable Crisis: French Sources

1 “All countries exporting Soybeans to France, in 2016 by weight,” Chatham House: The Royal Institute of International Affairs, 2016, https://resourcetrade.earth/data?year=2016&importer=251&category=87&uni ts=weight.

2  Cette estimation se fonde sur les importations de la dernière décennie (2007-2016), d'après les chiffres figurant dans la base de données suivante: “All countries exporting Soybeans to Germany by weight,” Chatham House: The Royal Institute of International Affairs, 2007-2016, https://resourcetrade.earth/datayear=2007&exporter=sac&importer=251&category=87&units=weight.

3 Lomeli, Luciana Gallardo and James Anderson. “Restoring Degraded Land in Latin America Can Bring Billions in Economic Benefits,” World Resources Institute, October 2016, http://www.wri.org/blog/2016/10/restoring-degraded-land-latin-america-can-bring-billions-economic-benefits.

4 Fehlenberg, Verena et al. “The role of soybean production as an underlying driver of deforestation in the South American Chaco,” Global Environmental Change, Vol. 45, pp. 24-34, July 2017, http://www.sciencedirect.c om/science/article/pii/S0959378017305964?_escaped_fragment_=#!.

5 Keith, Slack. “The Indigenous of the Paraguayan Chaco: Struggle for the Land,” Cultural Survival Quarterly Magazine, December 1995, https://www.culturalsurvival.org/publications/cultural-survival-quarterly/indigenous-paraguayan-chaco-struggle-land. ; Greene, Caitlyn. “Beyond the Amazon: Deforestation in Argentina,” The Argentina Independent, September 2018, http://www.argentinaindependent.com/socialissues/environ ment/beyond-the-amazon-deforestation-in-argentina/.

6 Lovera, Miguel et al. “La Situación de los Ayoreo Aislados en Bolivia y en las Zonas Transfronterizas con Paraquay,” Iniciativa Amotocodie, 2016, http://www.iniciativa-amotocodie.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/05/InformeAaisladosZonaFronteraPY-BO-Reduced.pdf.

7 de Waroux, Yann le Polain et al. “Land-use policies and corporate investments in agriculture in the Gran Chaco and Chiquitano,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, Vol. 113(15), April 2016, http://www.pnas.org/content/113/15/4021.full.

8 Zak, Marcelo R. et al. “What Drives Accelerated Land Cover Change in Central Argentina? Synergistic Consequences of Climatic, Socioeconomic and Technological Factors,” Springer Science + Business Media, LLC , Vol. 42(2) pp. 181-189, August 2008, https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs00267-008-9101-y.

9 Baumann, Matthias. “Land-Use Competition in the South American Chaco,” Springer International Publishing Switzerland, July 2016, https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-319-33628-2_13.  

10  Fehlenberg, Verena et al. “The role of soybean production as an underlying driver of deforestation in the South American Chaco,” Global Environmental Change, Vol. 45, pp. 24-34, July 2017, https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0959378017305964 

11 Baumann, Matthias et al. “Carbon emissions from agricultural expansion and intensification in the Chaco,” Global Change Biology, Vol. 23(5), pp. 1902-1916, October 2016, http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/ 10.1111/gcb.13521/abstract.

12 “Each Country’s Share of CO2 Emissions,” Union of Concerned Scientists: Science for a healthy planet and safer world, n.d. https://www.ucsusa.org/global-warming/science-and-impacts/science/each-countrys-share-of-co2.html#.WniuxZOpnBJ.

13 “Tree cover loss,” Global Forest Watch Commodities, n.d. http://commodities.globalforestwatch.org/#v=map& lyrs=tcc%2ChansenLoss&x=-60.69&y=-23.5&l=5. ; “Argentina ranks ninth in infamous ‘deforestation list,” Buenos Aires Herald, http://www.buenosairesherald.com/article/198242/argentina-ranks-ninth-in-infamous-%E2%80%98deforesta.

14 “Deforestatión en el norte de Argentina,” Greenpeace Argentina, January 2017,  http://www.greenpeace.org/a rgentina/Global/argentina/2017/1/Deforestacion-norte-Argentina-Anual-2016.pdf 

15 “Aplicación del “Fondo Nacional para el Enriquecimiento y la Conservación de los Bosques Nativos” establecido per la Ley 26.331,” Greenpeace Argentina, November 2010,   https://www.greenpeace.org/argentina/Global /argentina/report/2010/Bosques/Ley_Bosques/aplicacion-ley-de-bosques-fondos.pdf.

16 Guidi, Ruxandra. “Seven million hectares of forests have been lost in Argentina over the past 20 years,” Mongabay, February 2016,  https://news.mongabay.com/2016/02/seven-million-hectares-of-forests-have-been-lost-in-argentina-in-the-past-20-years/.

17 “Deforestation in the Chaco spikes in the wake of “illegal” presidential decree stripping back environmental safeguards,” Illegal Deforestation Monitor, January 2018, http://www.bad-ag.info/deforestation-in-the-chaco-spikes-in-the-wake-of-illegal-presidential-decree-stripping-back-environmental-safeguards/.

18 Riveros, Fernando. “The Gran Chaco,” Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, July 2012,  http://archive.today/2012.07.30-004747/http://www.fao.org/ag/AGP/agpc/doc/Bulletin/GranChaco.htm 

19 Semper-Pascual, Asunción et al. “Mapping extinction debt highlights conservation opportunities for birds and mammals in the South American Chaco,” Journal of Applied Ecology, January 2018, http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/1365-2664.13074/full.

20 “Protecting the Atlantic Forest in Paraguay,” World Land Trust, n.d., http://www.worldlandtrust.org/projects/paraguay/guyra-reta-reserve.

21 Law No. 5.045/13

22 “Plan Belgrano: Avanza la recuperación del tren de cargas en Salta y Jujuy,” Argentinian Government, March 2017, https://www.argentina.gob.ar/noticias/plan-belgrano-avanza-la-recuperacion-del-tren-de-cargas-en-salta-y-jujuy.

23 “Argentina plans railways to expand agriculture in north,” The Western Producer, April 2017,  https://www.producer.com/2017/04/argentina-plans-railways-to-expand-agriculture-in-north/.“Plan Belgrano: Avanza la recuperación del tren de cargas en Salta y Jujuy,” Argentinian Government, March 2017, https://www.argentina.gob.ar/noticias/plan-belgrano-avanza-la-recuperacion-del-tren-de-cargas-en-salta-y-jujuy.

24 “All countries exporting Soybeans to Europe, in 2016 by weight,” Chatham House: The Royal Institute of International Affairs, 2016, https://resourcetrade.earth/data?year=2016&importer=251&category=87&uni ts=weight.

25 Mooney, Pat et al. “Too Big to Feed,” International Panel of Experts on Sustainable Food Systems, October 2017, http://www.ipesfood.org/images/Reports/Concentration_FullReport.pdf.

26 “Instalaciones: Acopios,” Bunge, n.d. https://www.bungeargentina.com/es/instalaciones/acopios.

27 “Zero Deforestation: Building 21st century value chains,” Bunge, n.d. https://www.bunge.com/sustainability/zero-deforestation.  ; “Ending Deforestation: Cargill is committed to protecting forests and ensuring deforestation-free supply chains,” Cargill, n.d. https://www.cargill.com/sustainability/deforestation.

28 Bellantonio, Marisa et al. “The Ultimate Mystery Meat,” Mighty Earth, February 2017, http://www.mightyearth.org/mysterymeat/.

29 “Ministry confirms illegality of deforestation in farms owned by politically-connected businessman in Argentina,” Illegal Deforestation Monitor, January 2018, http://www.bad-ag.info/argentinas-government-confirms-illegality-of-deforestation-in-farms-owned-by-politically-connected-businessman/.

30  “Argentina: Country Environmental Analysis,” World Bank Group, May 2016, http://documentos.bancomundial.org/curated/es/218361479799045279/pdf/109527-ENGLISH-PUBLIC-ARG-CEA-Country-Environmental-Analysis-English.pdf.

31 Kelland, Kate. “In glyphosate review, WHO cancer agency edited out ‘non-carcinogenic’ findings,” Reuters, October 2017, https://www.reuters.com/investigates/special-report/who-iarc-glyphosate/. ; Cressey, Daniel. “Widely Used Herbicide Linked to Cancer,” Scientific American, March 2015, https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/widely-used-herbicide-linked-to-cancer/.

32 Kalverkamp, Michael Álvarez et al. “Meat Atlas: Facts and figures about the animals we eat,” Heinrich Böll Stiftung, January 2014, https://www.boell.de/sites/default/files/meat_atlas2014_kommentierbar.pdf.

33 Ueker, Marly Elaine et al. “Parenteral exposure to pesticides and occurrence of congenital malformations: hospital-based case-control stody,” BMC Pediatrics, Vol. 16(125), August 2016, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4983026/. ;  Ruderman, L et al. “Análisis de la Salud Colectiva Ambiental de Malvinas Argentina-Córdoba Una investigación socio- ambiental y sanitaria a través de técnicas cualitativas y relevamiento epidemiológico cuantitativo,” Reduas, August 2012, http://www.reduas.com.ar/wp-content/uploads/downloads/2013/02/Informe-Malvinas-corregido1.pdf.

34 Cet entretien a été mené en langue Guarani, puis traduit en anglais

35 Cet entretien a été mené en langue Guarani puis traduit en anglais

36 “Ley Nº 904/81,” Estuato do las Comunidades Indíegenas, n.d.  http://www.tierraviva.org.py/wp-content/uploads/2013/11/PDF.pdf.

37 Loi paraguayenne N°. 904/81, article 17.

38  “Companies pledging to tackle soy and cattle driven deforestation in Brazil’s Cerrado nearly triples in just three months,” Tropical Forest Alliance 2020, January 2018, https://www.tfa2020.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/01/Press-release-marking-the-significant-increase-in-company-signatories-to-the-Cerrado-Manifesto-Statement-of-Support-25-Jan-2018.pdf

39 “All countries exporting Soybeans to France, in 2016 by weight,” Chatham House: The Royal Institute of International Affairs, 2016, https://resourcetrade.earth/data?year=2016&importer=251&category=87&uni ts=weight.

40 “Glyphosate,” European Commission, n.d. https://ec.europa.eu/food/plant/pesticides/glyphosate_en; https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/widely-used-herbicide-linked-to-cancer/. ; Kelland, Kate. “In glyphosate review, WHO cancer agency edited out ‘non-carcinogenic’ findings,” Reuters, October 2017,  https://www.reuters.com/investigates/special-report/who-iarc-glyphosate/.

41 Flach, Bob et al. “EU Biofuels Annual 2017,” USDA: Global Agricultural Information Network, June 2017, https://gain.fas.usda.gov/Recent%20GAIN%20Publications/Biofuels%20Annual_The%20Hague_EU-28_6-19-2017.pdf.

42 Pritchard, Janet. “Developing EU measures to address forest-risk commodities: What can be learned from EU regulation of other sectors?,” Fern, November 2016, http://www.fern.org/sites/fern.org/files/Developing %20EU%20measures_0.pdf.

43 “Agriculture and deforestation,” Fern, April 2017, http://www.fern.org/capreform.


The Avoidable Crisis: EU Sources

1 “Meat Consumption,” Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development Data, 2018, https://data.oecd.org/agroutput/meat-consumption.htm.

2 “The Growth of Soy: Impacts & Solutions,” World Wildlife Fund International, January 2014, http://wwf.pana.org/what_ we_do/footprint/agriculture/soy/soyreport/.

3 “Soja Barometer,” Dutch Soy Coalition, April 2014, http://soycoalition.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/04/Soja-Barometer2014_UK_FINAL2.pdf. 

4 “All countries exporting Soybeans to Europe, in 2016 by weight,” Chatham House: The Royal Institute of International Affairs, 2016 https://resourcetrade.earth/datayear=2016&importer= eur&category=87&units=weight.

5 “Agricultural commodity consumption in the EU – Policy Brief,” Fern,  May 2017, http://www.fern.org/sites/fern.org/files/Soybean%20briefing%20paper%204pp%20A4%20WEB%281%2.pdf.

6  “Data & Trends: EU Food and Drink Industry,” FoodDrink Europe, October 2017, http://www.fooddrinkeurope.eu/uploads/publications_documents/DataandTrends_Report_2017.pdf.

7 Average numbers based on the imports for the past decade (2007-2016) based on the numbers from the following data base: “All countries exporting Soybeans to Europe by weight,” Chatham House: The Royal Institute of International Affairs, 2007-2016, https://resourcetrade.earth/datayear=2007&exporter=sac&importer=251&category=87&units=weight.

8 Lomeli, Luciana Gallardo and James Anderson. “Restoring Degraded Land in Latin America Can Bring Billions in Economic Benefits,” World Resources Institute, October 2016, http://www.wri.org/blog/2016/10/restoring-degraded-land-latin-america-can-bring-billions-economic-benefits.

9 Fehlenberg, Verena et al. “The role of soybean production as an underlying driver of deforestation in the South American Chaco,” Global Environmental Change, Vol 45, pp. 24-24, July 2017, https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0959378017305964. 

10 Keith, Slack. “The Indigenous of the Paraguayan Chaco: Struggle for the Land,” Cultural Survival Quarterly Magazine, December 1995, https://www.culturalsurvival.org/publications/cultural-survival-quarterly/indigenous-paraguayan-chaco-struggle-land. ; Greene, Caitlyn. “Beyond the Amazon: Deforestation in Argentina,” The Argentina Independent, September 2018, http://www.argentinaindependent.com/socialissues/environ ment/beyond-the-amazon-deforestation-in-argentina/.

11 Lovera, Miguel et al. “La Situación de los Ayoreo Aislados en Bolivia y en las Zonas Transfronterizas con Paraquay,” Iniciativa Amotocodie, 2016, http://www.iniciativa-amotocodie.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/05/InformeAaisladosZonaFronteraPY-BO-Reduced.pdf.

12 de Waroux, Yann le Polain et al. “Land-use policies and corporate investments in agriculture in the Gran Chaco and Chiquitano,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, Vol. 113(15), April 2016, http://www.pnas.org/content/113/15/4021.full.

13 Zak, Marcelo R. et al. “What Drives Accelerated Land Cover Change in Central Argentina? Synergistic Consequences of Climatic, Socioeconomic and Technological Factors,” Springer Science + Business Media, LLC , Vol. 42(2) pp. 181-189, August 2008, https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs00267-008-9101-y.

14 Baumann, Matthias. “Land-Use Competition in the South American Chaco,” Springer International Publishing Switzerland, July 2016, https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-319-33628-2_13.

15  Fehlenberg, Verena et al. “The role of soybean production as an underlying driver of deforestation in the South American Chaco,” Global Environmental Change, Vol. 45, pp. 24-34, July 2017, https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0959378017305964.

16 Baumann, Matthias et al. “Carbon emissions from agricultural expansion and intensification in the Chaco,” Global Change Biology, Vol. 23(5), pp. 1902-1916, October 2016, http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/ 10.1111/gcb.13521/abstract.

17 “Each Country’s Share of CO2 Emissions,” Union of Concerned Scientists: Science for a healthy planet and safer world, n.d. https://www.ucsusa.org/global-warming/science-and-impacts/science/each-countrys-share-of-co2.html#.WniuxZOpnBJ.

18 “Tree cover loss,” Global Forest Watch Commodities, n.d. http://commodities.globalforestwatch.org/#v=map& lyrs=tcc%2ChansenLoss&x=-60.69&y=-23.5&l=5. ; “Argentina ranks ninth in infamous ‘deforestation list,” Buenos Aires Herald, http://www.buenosairesherald.com/article/198242/argentina-ranks-ninth-in-infamous-%E2%80%98deforesta.

19 “Deforestatión en el norte de Argentina,” Greenpeace Argentina, January 2017,  http://www.greenpeace.org/a rgentina/Global/argentina/2017/1/Deforestacion-norte-Argentina-Anual-2016.pdf.

20 “Aplicación del “Fondo Nacional para el Enriquecimiento y la Conservación de los Bosques Nativos” establecido per la Ley 26.331,” Greenpeace Argentina, November 2010,   https://www.greenpeace.org/argentina/Global /argentina/report/2010/Bosques/Ley_Bosques/aplicacion-ley-de-bosques-fondos.pdf.

21 Guidi, Ruxandra. “Seven million hectares of forests have been lost in Argentina over the past 20 years,” Mongabay, February 2016,  https://news.mongabay.com/2016/02/seven-million-hectares-of-forests-have-been-lost-in-argentina-in-the-past-20-years/.

22 “Deforestation in the Chaco spikes in the wake of “illegal” presidential decree stripping back environmental safeguards,” Illegal Deforestation Monitor, January 2018, http://www.bad-ag.info/deforestation-in-the-chaco-spikes-in-the-wake-of-illegal-presidential-decree-stripping-back-environmental-safeguards/.

23  Riveros, Fernando. “The Gran Chaco,” Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, July 2012,  http://archive.today/2012.07.30-004747/http://www.fao.org/ag/A GP/agpc/doc/Bulletin/GranChaco.htm.

24 Semper-Pascual, Asunción et al. “Mapping extinction debt highlights conservation opportunities for birds and mammals in the South American Chaco,” Journal of Applied Ecology, January 2018, http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/1365-2664.13074/full.

25 “Protecting the Atlantic Forest in Paraguay,” World Land Trust, n.d., http://www.worldlandtrust.org/projects/paraguay/guyra-reta-reserve.

26 Law No. 5.045/13

27 “Plan Belgrano: Avanza la recuperación del tren de cargas en Salta y Jujuy,” Argentinian Government, March 2017, https://www.argentina.gob.ar/noticias/plan-belgrano-avanza-la-recuperacion-del-tren-de-cargas-en-salta-y-jujuy.

28 “Argentina plans railways to expand agriculture in north,” The Western Producer, April 2017,  https://www.producer.com/2017/04/argentina-plans-railways-to-expand-agriculture-in-north/.

29 “Plan Belgrano: Avanza la recuperación del tren de cargas en Salta y Jujuy,” Argentinian Government, March 2017, https://www.argentina.gob.ar/noticias/plan-belgrano-avanza-la-recuperacion-del-tren-de-cargas-en-salta-y-jujuy.

30 “Argentina – Soy,” Trase.Earth, 2016, https://goo.gl/SSaoT6.

31 “All countries exporting Soybeans to Europe, in 2016 by weight,” Chatham House: The Royal Institute of International Affairs, 2016 https://resourcetrade.earth/data?year=2016&importer= eur&category=87&units=weight.

32 Mooney, Pat et al. “Too Big to Feed,” International Panel of Experts on Sustainable Food Systems, October 2017, http://www.ipes-food.org/images/Reports/Concentration_FullReport.pdf.

33 Murphy, Sophia et al. “Cereal Secrets: The world’s largest grain traders and global agriculture,” Oxfam Research Reports, August 2012, https://www.oxfam.org/sites/www.oxfam.org/files/rr-cereal-secrets-grain-traders-agriculture-30082012-en.pdf 

34 “Instalaciones: Acopios,” Bunge, n.d. https://www.bungeargentina.com/es/instalaciones/acopios.

35 “Zero Deforestation: Building 21st century value chains,” Bunge, n.d. https://www.bunge.com/sustainability/zero-deforestation.  ; “Ending Deforestation: Cargill is committed to protecting forests and ensuring deforestation-free supply chains,” Cargill, n.d. https://www.cargill.com/sustainability/deforestation.

36 Bellantonio, Marisa et al. “The Ultimate Mystery Meat,” Mighty Earth, February 2017, http://www.mightyearth.org/mysterymeat/ 

37 “Ministry confirms illegality of deforestation in farms owned by politically-connected businessman in Argentina,” Illegal Deforestation Monitor, January 2018, http://www.bad-ag.info/argentinas-government-confirms-illegality-of-deforestation-in-farms-owned-by-politically-connected-businessman/.

38  “Argentina: Country Environmental Analysis,” World Bank Group, May 2016, http://documentos.bancomundial.org/curated/es/218361479799045279/pdf/109527-ENGLISH-PUBLIC-ARG-CEA-Country-Environmental-Analysis-English.pdf.   

39 Kelland, Kate. “In glyphosate review, WHO cancer agency edited out ‘non-carcinogenic’ findings,” Reuters, October 2017, https://www.reuters.com/investigates/special-report/who-iarc-glyphosate/. ; Cressey, Daniel. “Widely Used Herbicide Linked to Cancer,” Scientific American, March 2015, https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/widely-used-herbicide-linked-to-cancer/.

40 “Macrons says glyphosate to be banned in France within three years,” Reuters, November 2017,  https://www.reuters.com/article/us-eu-health-glyphosate-macron/macron-says-glyphosate-to-be-banned-in-france-within-three-years-idUSKBN1DR259.

41 Kalverkamp, Michael Álvarez et al. “Meat Atlas: Facts and figures about the animals we eat,” Heinrich Böll Stiftung, January 2014, https://www.boell.de/sites/default/files/meat_atlas2014_kommentierbar.pdf.

42 Ueker, Marly Elaine et al. “Parenteral exposure to pesticides and occurrence of congenital malformations: hospital-based case-control stody,” BMC Pediatrics, Vol. 16(125), August 2016, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4983026/. ;  Ruderman, L et al. “Análisis de la Salud Colectiva Ambiental de Malvinas Argentina-Córdoba Una investigación socio- ambiental y sanitaria a través de técnicas cualitativas y relevamiento epidemiológico cuantitativo,” Reduas, August 2012, http://www.reduas.com.ar/wp-content/uploads/downloads/2013/02/Informe-Malvinas-corregido1.pdf.

43 This interview was conducted in the indigenous language Guarani and was later translated into English. 

44 This interview was conducted in the indigenous language Guarani, and was later translated into English.

45 “Ley Nº 904/81,” Estuato do las Comunidades Indíegenas, n.d.  http://www.tierraviva.org.py/wp-content/uploads/2013/11/PDF.pdf.

46 Paraguayan Law no. 904/81, article 17.

47 Tyrrell, Kelly April. “Study shows Brazil’s Soy Moratorium still needed to preserve the Amazon,” University of Wisconsin-Madison, January 2015,  https://news.wisc.edu/study-shows-brazils-soy-moratorium-still-needed-to-preserve-amazon/.

48  “Companies pledging to tackle soy and cattle driven deforestation in Brazil’s Cerrado nearly triples in just three months,” Tropical Forest Alliance 2020, January 2018, https://www.tfa2020.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/01/Press-release-marking-the-significant-increase-in-company-signatories-to-the-Cerrado-Manifesto-Statement-of-Support-25-Jan-2018.pdf

49 “South America exporting Soybeans to Europe, in 2016 by weight,” Chatham House: The Royal Institute of International Affairs, 2016,  https://resourcetrade.earth/data?year=2016 &exporter=sac&importer=eur&category=87&units=weight 

50 “Glyphosate,” European Commission, n.d. https://ec.europa.eu/food/plant/pesticides/glyphosate_en; https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/widely-used-herbicide-linked-to-cancer/. ; Kelland, Kate. “In glyphosate review, WHO cancer agency edited out ‘non-carcinogenic’ findings,” Reuters, October 2017,  https://www.reuters.com/investigates/special-report/who-iarc-glyphosate/.   

51 Pritchard, Janet. “Developing EU measures to address forest-risk commodities: What can be learned from EU regulation of other sectors?,” Fern, November 2016, http://www.fern.org/sites/fern.org/files/Developing %20EU%20measures_0.pdf.

52 “Agriculture and deforestation,” Fern, April 2017, http://www.fern.org/capreform.

 

 


Biofuel Mandates Are a Bad Idea Whose Time May Be Up

The Wall Street Journal | Mar. 11, 2018 

The political tide may be turning against the corn ethanol mandate. The Renewable Fuel Standard, which forces oil refiners to mix corn-based fuel into gasoline, is one of history’s great policy boondoggles.

Read more