Liviya James

Extensive Satellite, Video, Photographic Evidence Shows Korindo’s Systematic Use of Fire

Bahasa Version

“This information is valuable for our internal discussion. About the fire, it is true, so what do we want to argue,” said Luwy, a Korindo’s field technical staff who came with his friend to the report release. – Kompas, September 2, 2016.

Although a member of Korindo’s field technical staff admitted at a press event that his company does indeed use illegal fires to clear land for its oil palm plantations, related in the September 2nd issue of Kompas, the Korindo corporation now publicly asserts that it does not use this dangerous practice. However, extensive satellite, drone, and field research reveals comprehensive evidence to the contrary.

korindo in the hot seatAccording to a report by the research group AidEnvironment, satellite images show that Korindo’s systematic use of fires closely mirrors its land clearing process. Korindo uses the fires to quickly and cheaply clear the biomass lying on the ground after it has deforested, to prepare the ground for planting palm oil.  As seen by satellite in concession after concession, hotspot locations followed Korindo’s land development, and continued to appear in a predictable pattern in the newest areas that Korindo had recently cleared for its plantations. This clear pattern means that the fires could not have been natural or set by local communities for hunting, as Korindo argues, given that the affected areas shift year by year and directly follow Korindo’s activities.

Below is just a small sampling of evidence of Korindo’s deforestation and burning for palm oil (for more information, see the full report).

PT Donghin Prabhawa Concessions

In total, 351 hotspots were recorded in PT DP, spread throughout the period 2013-2015 (43 in 2013, 144 in 2014 and 164 in 2015). The fires typically followed a few months after deforestation, making it clear that Korindo used the fires to clear the biomass from the land to get it ready for planting. Note that there were almost no fires in the forested area surrounding the plantation development, and also no fires in the areas that were already planted with oil palm. This shows that fires occurred during the land clearing process.

The images below show the recorded hotspots in 2013, 2014 and 2015, each overlaid with a satellite image of their respective years. The lighter green areas are the sections where land clearing had recently occurred as Korindo expanded its plantation.

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August 19-21, 2013. There were 43 hotspots recorded in Korindo’s PT DP in 2013. Landsat 8 imagery.

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October 24 – November 1, 2014. There were 144 hotspots recorded in Korindo’s PT DP in 2014. Landsat 8 imagery.

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June 16-26, 2015. There were 164 hotspots recorded in Korindo’s PT DP in 2015. Landsat 8 imagery. Sources: FIRMS, Fire Information for Resource Management System, http://go.nasa.gov/27awNFg.

PT Tunas Sawa Erma 1B Concessions

Korindo subsidiary PT Tunas Sawa Erma 1B (PT TSE 1B), which holds an area of 19,000 hectares, began work in Papua in 2005. 25 local tribe clans own the majority of this land and have rejected Korindo’s plantation proposal. Nevertheless, in 2015, Korindo moved forward with land clearing in this area.

As the satellite images below show, there were 88 hotspots recorded in 2015 and six recorded in January 2016. By the end of April 2015, about 2,800 hectares had been cleared.

The massive fires set by Korindo on the PT TSE 1B concession are visible in the satellite image below, taken in late October 2015.

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Satellite evidence gathered by Aidenvironment documents Korindo’s systematic use of fire. Landsat 8 imagery of Oct 24- Nov 1, 2015.

The brown color on the image below, taken in early May 2016, shows the area cleared by Korindo on the PT TSE 1B concession, which is about 500 hectares of primary forest and 2,300 hectares of secondary forest.

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Satellite evidence gathered by Aidenvironment documents Korindo’s systematic use of fire and deforestation. Sentinel-2 image, May 11 2016.

PT Berkat Cipta Abadi 1 Concessions

The entire PT BCA 1 concession area was forested before Korindo started its oil palm operations. During 2013 and 2014, a total of 4,500 hectares of primary forest were cleared, along with 8,700 hectares of secondary forest. Only a river corridor of 700 hectares was spared, as seen in the images below.

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Left: The entire concession area was forested before Korindo began its operations. Source: Indonesian Ministry of Forestry forest cover maps for 2011. Right: Korindo cleared 4,500 hectares of primary forest, along with 8,700 hectares of secondary forest. Only a river corridor of 700 hectares was spared. Source: Landsat 8 imagery for 22 to 30 September 2015.

Land development began in the north and ended in the south. Hotspots followed deforestation and subsequent land development, as can be seen on the graphic below. In total, there were 106 hotspots recorded in 2013 and 2014. Burning is illegal under Indonesian law, and in addition, the Indonesian Ministry of Forestry specifically prohibited PT BCA from burning wood waste. Korindo ignored the extra warning and the fact that their fires are illegal, and continued burning.

The image below shows the spread of hotspots from north to south in 2013 and 2014 as Korindo cleared the land. Again, the pattern of fires closely mirrors Korindo’s land development, illustrating how the fires were not natural.

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PT BCA hotspot pattern in 2013 and 2014.

Aside from being extremely destructive for biodiversity and the environment, these illegal fires are incredibly dangerous for human health. A recent study by researchers from Harvard and Columbia found that the 2015 haze crisis in Southeast Asia likely caused 103,000 premature deaths in the region. The crisis was driven by intentionally set illegal fires by palm oil and timber agribusinesses. An estimated half a million people in Indonesia sought medical care because of the 2015 haze according to Indonesian authorities. The crisis cost Indonesia $16 billion in losses in agriculture, travel, tourism, forestry, and other industries, according to the World Bank.

Burning to clear forests is also illegal, prohibited under Indonesian Law No. 32/2009 on Environmental Protection and Management, among others. Possible penalties for those found guilty of breaking this law include fines and prison terms. The findings of this investigation has been filed with the Indonesian government and the Ministry of Forestry announced that they will investigate.  

In addition to the the fires, the Mighty report showcased aerial drone footage, videos, and photos of extensive deforestation by Korindo. Even Korindo’s own promotional video for its plywood business shows deforestation, chainsaws cutting through old growth logs, and boasts about clearing natural forest.  Papua’s rainforests hold a full 50% of the Indonesian archipelago’s biodiversity. Korindo’s decimation of these lush forests has resulted in the destruction of habitats of many species endemic to the area. In total, the company has cleared more than 50,000 hectares of forests in Papua for palm oil since 1998, an area approximately the size of Seoul, South Korea.

Responsible production of palm oil is possible. The palm oil industry has a long way to go and Korindo is one of the worst offenders. But many other companies have shown commitment to deforestation-free and exploitation-free palm oil, including companies that have dropped Korindo as a supplier because it is violating their policies.  These companies show that responsible production and profitability can go hand in hand.  For the sake of the Papuan forests, indigenous communities, and wildlife, we hope that Korindo will become Green Today, not “Green Tomorrow”.

Featured photo is of smoke rising from burning wood rows in Korindo’s PT Berkat Cipta Abadi concession; ©Ardiles Rante/Greenpeace; 26 March 2013


Antibiotic Factories Compounding Superbug Spread

New tests reveal lethal drug-resistant bacteria in water found near multiple production sites in India

‘Dirty’ factories supply U.S. drug retailers

Washington, D.C.—A new report by campaigning organization Changing Markets published today reveals, for the first time, the presence of drug-resistant bacteria at pharmaceutical manufacturing sites in India. The report also casts light on the supply chain that links the factories investigated to companies, public health services and hospitals in the United States and Europe.

On-the-ground research by investigative agency Ecostorm, and subsequent analysis of water samples under the supervision of Dr. Mark Holmes from the University of Cambridge, found high levels of drug-resistant bacteria at sites in three Indian cities: Hyderabad, New Delhi and Chennai.

Out of 34 sites tested, 16 were found to be harboring bacteria resistant to antibiotics. At four of the sites, resistance to three major classes of antibiotics was detected, including antibiotics of ‘last resort,’ those used to treat infections that fail to respond to all other medicines.

AMR CAUSES INFOGRAPHIC - OK - ENGLISH
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Detailed examination of publicly available supply chain data, and evidence obtained through Freedom of Information requests, has uncovered how antibiotics manufactured at or near these sites are being exported to foreign purchasers, including pharmaceutical majors like U.S. distribution giant McKesson and French company Sanofi’s generics arm Zentiva, as well as the United Kingdom’s National Health Service (NHS) and French hospitals.

GLOBAL ANTIBIOTICS SUPPLY CHAINS-VERSION 04
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Growing antimicrobial resistance (AMR), which is a matter of particular concern in the case of antibiotics, is one of the gravest threats to human health. Global deaths as a result of drug-resistant infections are projected to reach 10 million per year by 2050, with cumulative economic losses of $100 trillion. Medical experts warn that in the near future, drug resistant infections could once again make common illnesses, minor surgery, and routine operations such as hip replacements a life-or-death gamble.

Natasha Hurley, Campaign Manager at Changing Markets said:

“The dumping of antibiotic manufacturing residues poses a grave threat to human health in light of the growing AMR crisis. The discovery of drug-resistant bacteria at Indian factories supplying European and U.S. markets also raises serious questions about pharmaceutical supply chains.

 “Major buyers of antibiotics, such as the NHS, must immediately blacklist suppliers that are contributing to the spread of AMR through industrial pollution and ensure that all drug companies take action to clean up their supply chains. NHS doctors and nurses are working around the clock to tackle AMR; it is shocking that the pharmaceutical industry is undermining their lifesaving efforts through shoddy and dangerous practices.”

One company in particular, Hyderabad-based Aurobindo Pharma, emerges as one of the worst offenders. A recidivist polluter at its own production sites in India, it also imports the raw materials used for making antibiotics from dirty factories in China. With clear links to McKesson, whose biggest customer is U.S. drug retailer CVS Health, and an international network of subsidiaries affording direct access to European markets, Aurobindo is fast becoming a significant global presence.

UNRAVELLING THE GLOBAL ANNTIBIOTICS SUPPLY CHAIN IINFOGRAPHICS -
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Reacting to the report, Bill Corr, Senior Advisor at Waxman Strategies and former Deputy Secretary of HHS said:

This report joins a growing body of evidence that makes it impossible to ignore pharmaceutical industry pollution as a source of antimicrobial resistance. We need U.S. drug makers, pharmaceutical retailers and relevant regulatory agencies to work together to eliminate this contributor to resistance. If any cause of AMR remains, our health systems continue to be at risk.

Superbugs in the supply chain: How pollution from antibiotics factories in India and China is fuelling the global rise of drug-resistant infections by Changing Markets is available here.

Notes to editors:

  • Freedom of Information requests were submitted by the Bureau of Investigative Journalism to NHS trusts in summer 2016 and partial results shared with Changing Markets for inclusion in this report
  • Antibiotic resistance is a complex phenomenon with multiple interlinked causes, including the rampant misuse of antibiotics in human medicine and farming. But environmental pollution from the production of antibiotics is also recognised as a serious threat. Many factories in China and India, which supply most of the world’s antibiotics, are failing to treat manufacturing discharges appropriately, resulting in the contamination of rivers and lakes and fuelling the proliferation of drug-resistant bugs. The substantial quantities of antibiotics released from polluting factories, which frequently combine with runoff from farms and human waste in water bodies and sewage treatment plants, provide a perfect breeding ground for drug-resistant bacteria.

About Changing Markets:

Changing Markets is a campaigning organisation formed to accelerate and scale-up solutions to sustainability challenges by leveraging the power of markets. Working with NGOs, companies and foundations, we create and support campaigns that shift market share away from unsustainable products and companies to environmentally and socially beneficial solutions. www.changingmarkets.org / @ChangingMarkets

About Waxman Strategies

Built on the legacy of Henry Waxman’s storied Congressional career, Waxman Strategies is a progressive-minded public affairs firm. Our core practice areas are health, the environment, technology, telecommunications and media. By harnessing advocacy, communications and campaigns, we’ve successfully improved access to health care, slowed the scourge of deforestation and helped democratize access to technology. To learn more, visit www.waxmanstrategies.com.

Contact information:

Natasha Hurley
Campaign Manager
Changing Markets
[email protected]
+44 7585 663648

Nuša Urbančič
Campaigns Director
Changing Markets
[email protected]
+44 7479 015909

Casey Farrington
Account Coordinator
Waxman Strategies
[email protected]
(202) 899-2634 ext. 105


Waste From Pharmaceutical Plants in India and China Promotes Antibiotic-Resistant Superbugs

STAT First Opinion by Henry Waxman and Bill Corr

Pharmaceutical pollution of any type can be deadly, threatening habitats and poisoning drinking water. But antibiotic pollution doubles down on the dangers. The release of antibiotics into soil, streams, rivers and lakes creates a perfect storm for antimicrobial resistance to develop and spread.

This isn’t just a local disaster, because superbugs have no respect for national borders. Microbes travel freely through air and water. Bacteria are carried in livestock and agricultural products, which move across countries and continents as part of the global food system. And the ubiquity of international aviation means that antibiotic-resistant bacteria in people can travel thousands of miles in a matter of hours.

No physical barrier can be erected to prevent the spread of superbugs. Instead, they must be stopped at their source. Four vital steps can help reduce, if not eliminate, antibiotic pollution due to drug manufacturing.

Read more on STAT.


Rainforest Campaign Gets Big Response in South Korea

It’s been a busy and exciting few weeks for the Mighty team. Following the launch of our “Burning Paradise” report on Korindo, which prompted the Indonesian government to announce a major investigation and garnered widespread media coverage, Mighty team members Bustar Maitar and Deborah Lapidus traveled to South Korea to participate in a speaking and media tour, organized by the Korea Federation for Environmental Movements (KFEM). The tour consisted of lectures at Seoul National University, a press conference, an activist rally, and meetings with a range of related companies, civil society organizations, and government officials. The story was covered by several major Korean news outlets, including SisaIN, Kyung Huang News, Newsis, Korea IT Times, Munhwa Journal, and many others. Notably, this citizen-led campaign in Korea proves that sustainability concerns are rising across Asia, spreading beyond the mainstays of Europe and North America, a sign of major progress in the fight to end deforestation.

korindo-korean-press-conference

The extensive evidence of Korindo’s destruction of a rainforest paradise in Papua, Indonesia, sent shock waves throughout Korea, where Korindo, owned by the influential Korean Seung family, had spent several decades portraying itself as a “green” company that plants trees in Indonesia. Korindo was visibly rattled that the truth about their devastating practices was being revealed on their home turf. A team of Korindo executives even flew in from Jakarta to follow the tour in an apparent effort to cast doubt on the report. However, Korindo has failed to provide any counter-evidence or data to make its case.

In meetings between NGO coalition members and Korindo in both Korea and Jakarta, Korindo executives appeared to be stuck in the 1950s when it came to their approach to development, and seemed entirely unaware of the broader trends in their industry toward responsible agriculture. The Korindo executives refused to acknowledge they had a problem, defended their deforestation, and couldn’t seem to get their story straight about the fires: first denying them altogether and then admitting there were fires, but placing the blame on a number of different factors ranging from the weather to local communities to workers trying to eliminate beehives in leftover biomass.

Meanwhile, the pressure on Korindo is mounting. Every week, more and more global palm oil and wood products buyers report that they are excluding Korindo from their supply chains. You can see a more detailed graph of who has taken action below. Rainforest Action Network did a case study of community rights violations and deforestation at Korindo’s Korintiga logging concession on its Forests and Finance website. Greenpeace profiled Korindo’s destruction in a report it released this week, A Deadly Trade Off. The Indonesian government announced and even tweeted that it plans to visit Korindo’s concessions to investigate allegations of illegal forest burning. The clamor for action was heightened last week when Harvard and Columbia researchers released a new study finding that in 2015 the toxic haze released by forest fires in Indonesia led to a staggering 100,300 premature deaths across Southeast Asia.

The world is watching Korindo right now. But it’s going to take even more action by consumers across the globe to get Korindo out of the mud and at the negotiating table. Join the campaign by signing our petition to demand that Korindo agree to a moratorium on forest clearing and stop taking community lands.

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Massive Fires on the Concessions of Indonesia's Second Biggest Palm Oil Producer

New report finds that Astra Agro Lestari has little control over forest fires, despite sustainability pledges.

One year ago, Astra Agro Lestari (Astra), the second largest private palm oil grower in Indonesia, adopted a new, ambitious No Deforestation, No Peat, No Exploitation policy. In response to pressure from NGOs and shareholders, the company introduced an immediate moratorium on forest clearance in June 2015, and in September the same year published a sustainability policy which included commitments to cease forest clearance, refrain from developing plantations on peatlands, prevent fires and respect human rights of workers and local communities.

However, a new report commissioned by Rainforest Foundation Norway, Mighty, and the Indonesian organizations YMP and KKI Warsi shows that, one year in, the implementation of Astra’s sustainability policy leaves much to be desired.

Read the full report here.

Little control over forest fires

Beyond a commitment in its sustainability policy to avoid using fire to clear land, Astra provides little public information on how it prevents and mitigates fires.

The report shows that thousands of hectares of natural forests and palm oil plantations were lost to fire inside Astra’s Kalimantan concessions during Indonesia’s 2015 haze disaster. A total of 677 fire hotspots were found in Astra’s concessions from July to October 2015.

This is serious, considering that the forest fires in Indonesia last year may have caused over 100.000 premature deaths, according to a recent study by researchers at Harvard and Columbia universities.

“Astra urgently needs to take steps to prevent a repeat of last year’s haze catastrophe,” says Anja Lillegraven of Rainforest Foundation Norway. “Palm oil plantations on peat are extremely fire-prone, and we want to see Astra making a serious effort to restore degraded peatlands and forests within its concessions.”

The report stresses that there are no grounds to suggest that Astra intentionally uses fire to clear land, but the number and scale of fires certainly show that fire prevention and mitigation by Astra were not effective during 2015. Furthermore, Indonesian law holds companies responsible for preventing and extinguishing fires on their concessions, regardless of who started the fires.

Effective deforestation ban

Astra manages around 298,000 hectares of palm oil plantations in Kalimantan, Sumatra and Sulawesi. Over the last five years before its No Deforestation policy, the company expanded its planted area by 35,000 hectares. A previous sustainability assessment found that Astra had deforested 14,000 hectares since 2007 and destroyed 27,000 hectares of carbon-rich peatlands since 2009 which resulted in at least two million tons of carbon emissions annually (not including emissions from forest fires).

Astra’s policy has been effective in stopping forest clearance, according to the report. No cases of deforestation or clearing of peatland, and no new expansion, has taken place within Astra’s own concessions since the moratorium of June 2015. However, around 300 hectares of rainforest clearing were discovered in a concession area not owned by Astra, but where Astra manages oil palm plantations in cooperation with the concession owners.

Still sourcing from “high risk” third party suppliers

The report found that in the first half of 2016, Astra sourced 33,000 tons of palm oil from a high risk supplier called PT Austindo Nusantara Jaya (PT ANJ).PT ANJ cleared 8,000 hectares of natural forest in West Papua between early 2014 to mid-2015.This supplier was suspended by four other major palm oil buyers for violating their No Deforestation policies, yet Astra provided no response as to whether it assessed the company’s sustainability practices before buying from them.

“Astra is moving forward, but at an inchworm’s speed. We have yet to see the real drive for change from Astra that is needed to move its supply chain along with it,” said Deborah Lapidus, Campaigns Director with Mighty. “Astra must immediately publish the identities of its suppliers and report on their performance, or we’ll constantly be wondering what’s lurking in Astra’s shadows.”

Astra sources about one third of its palm oil from third party suppliers. Astra’s policy applies to these suppliers, but there is no evidence that Astra has engaged its suppliers on its policy or conducted independent assessments of supplier compliance. Astra has yet to be transparent about who its suppliers are and where they are located.

Unresolved legacy of human rights violations

Astra’s previous plantation establishment has led to severe human rights violations. The NGO coalition views Astra’s efforts to address grievances and provide remedy as insufficient.

“The indigenous Orang Rimba people in Jambi are suffering as a result of Astra’s palm oil plantations”, said Diki Kurniawan from KKI WARSI in Jambi. “Because their lands were expropriated by Astra, they live in extreme poverty and despair. We urge Astra to return land to the 400 Orang Rimba within Astra’s plantation so they can live a decent life.”

Featured photo: CIFOR


Harvard/Columbia Haze Report: Bahasa version

DISCLAIMER: The Bahasa version of this document is a translation of the original in English, for information purposes only. We have made all reasonable efforts in order to provide accurate translations, however, no translation is perfect and the official text is the English. Any discrepancies or differences created in the translation are not binding for research or citation purposes. In case of a discrepancy, the English original will prevail. If any questions arise concerning the accuracy of the information presented by the translated version of the document, please refer to the English version.

Citation details will be as follows: Koplitz et al 2016 Environ. Res. Lett. 11 094023 Doi: 10.1088/1748-9326/11/9/094023 URL: http://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/1748-9326/11/9/094023

Makalah Riset Lingkungan

MAKALAH

Dampak kesehatan masyarakat terhadap kabut asap di Equatorial Asia pada September-Oktober 2015: menampilkan   kerangka baru untuk menginformasikan strategi penanggulangan kebakaran untuk mengurangi paparan dari asap yang terbawa  angin

Shannon N Koplitz1,9, Loretta J Mickley2, Miriam E Marlier3, Jonathan J Buonocore4, Patrick S Kim1, Tianjia Liu5, Melissa P Sulprizio2, Ruth S DeFries3, Daniel J Jacob1,2, Joel Schwartz6, Montira Pongsiri7 and Samuel S Myers6,8

1 Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA, USA

2 School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA, USA

Q2 3 Department of Ecology, Evolution, and Environmental Biology,ColumbiaUniversity,NewYork,NY,USA

4 Center for Health and the Global Environment, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Harvard University, Boston, MA, USA

5 Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Columbia University, New York, NY, USA

6 Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Harvard University, Boston, MA, USA

7 Wildlife Conservation Society HEAL Program, Washington, DC, USA

8 Harvard University Center for the Environment, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA, USA

9 Pengarang yang manjadi tujuan  korespondensi terkait penelitian

Kata kunci: pembakaran untuk perubahan penggunaan lahan, paparan asap, GEOS-chem adjoint

Materi pelengkap makalah ini tersedia online

Abstrak

Pada September-Oktober 2015, El Niño dan kondisi Indian Ocean Dipole telah mengakibatkan kebakaran besar di Sumatera dan Kalimantan (Borneo Indonesia) sehingga menyebabkan polusi asap pada tingkat yang sangat membahayakan di sepanjang Equatorial Asia. Dalam makalah ini kami melakukan kuantifikasi sumber-sumber emisi dan dampak kesehatan pada kejadian kabut asap, kemudian membandingkan sumber dan dampak tersebut dengan  peristiwa besar  serupa yang terjadi pada kondisi-kondisi meteorologi yang serupa pula di bulan September-Oktober 2006. Dengan menggunakan model perpindahan GEOS-Chem adjoint, pertama-tama kami menghitung pengaruh emisi kebakaran yang beresiko terjadi di sepanjang ranah konsentrasi asap di wilayah-wilayah penerima arah tiupan angin (downwind) –Indonesia, Malaysia, dan Singapura – selama kejadian 2006. Langkah ini memetakan sensitifitas masing-masing reseptor terhadap emisi kebakaran dalam setiap kisi sel  angin yang bergerak ke atas (upwind). Kemudian kami mengkombinasikan sensitifitas-sensitifitas tersebut dengan emisi kebakaran yang diinventarisir pada 2006 dan 2015 dari Global Fire Assimilation System (GFAS) untuk memperkirakan paparan asap yang menimpa populasi yang ditimbulkan. Metode ini, yang mengasumsikan jalur pergerakan asap yang serupa pada 2006 dan 2015, memungkinkan penilaian yang hampir mendekati waktu sesungguhnya atas paparan polusi asap tersebut. Termasuk pula penilaian terhadap morbiditas dan mortalitas prematur akibat paparan kabut asap tersebut. Pendekatan kami juga memberikan penilaian cepat terhadap kontribusi relatif emisi kebakaran yang dihasilkan di sebuah provinsi tertentu terhadap dampak kesehatan yang terkait asap di wilayah-wilayah reseptor. Kami memperkirakan bahwa kabut asap pada 2015 menyebabkan 100 300 kematian di seluruh Indonesia, Malaysia, dan Singapura. Korban itu lebih dari dua kali lipat dibandingkan kejadian pada 2006 dimana peningkatan terjadi  karena kebakaran di Provinsi Sumatera Selatan,  Indonesia. Kerangka kerja model yang kami perkenalkan dalam kajian ini dapat mengidentifikasi dengan cepat wilayah-wilayah dimana pengelolaan pemanfaatan lahan untuk mengurangi dan/atau menghindari kebakaran akan memberikan manfaat sebesar-besarnya bagi kesehatan manusia baik secara nasional maupun regional.

  1. Pendahuluan

Asap tebal yang melingkupi wilayah sepanjang garis khatulistiwa di Asia (Equatorial Asia) selama September-Oktober 2015 mungkin merupakan episode kejadian kabut asap terburuk sejak 1997 ketika kebakaran dari pemanfaatan lahan mengakibatkan kerugian miliaran dollar dan ribuan kematian prematur (Johnston dkk. 2012, Marlier dkk. 2013). Gambut yang terdegradasi yang biasanya terbakar selama masa-masa semacam itu mengandung bahan organik yang mudah terbakar yang signifikan. Akibatnya partikel halus  tertentu terlepas dalam jumlah yang luar biasa besar (PM2,5), yang menjadi penyebab mortalitas global akibat polusi (World Health Organization 2009, Lelieved dkk. 2015). Sebagaimana terjadi pada episode-episode sebelumnya, angin yang bertiup pada 2015 membawa asap ke wilayah-wilayah padat penduduk di seluruh Indonesia dan Semenanjung Malaka, termasuk Singapura dan Kuala Lumpur. Dalam studi ini, kami mengidentifikasi provinsi-provinsi dimana kebijakan-kebijakan pemanfaatan lahan dan strategi pengelolaan dapat membuat mitigasi yang paling efektif terhadap paparan asap yang terbawa arah angin dan biaya yang timbul terhadap kesehatan manusia selama kejadian kabut asap. Kami juga membandingkan kejadian pada 2015 dengan kejadian asap yang besar lainnya pada 2006, sehingga  dapat menentukan bagaimana pola-pola emisi kebakaran dapat berkembang akibat  perubahan tutupan lahan.

Di seluruh Indonesia, api seringkali digunakan untuk membakar sisa-sisa pertanian, membuka hutan,  mempersiapkan lahan untuk perkebunan atau pertanian kecil. Kebakaran juga terjadi akibat perbuatan vandalisme atau pemicuan api yang tidak terencana  (Dennis dkk. 2005, Gaveau dkk. 2014a). Tingkat emisi kebakaran yang terbesar berasal dari lahan gambut yang terdegradasi, terutama dalam tahun-tahun yang kering (Marlier dkk. 2015a, 2015b). Pada 2006, pembakaran di konsesi-konsesi industri untuk membuka lahan bagi perkebunan kelapa sawit dan kayu jumlahnya sekitar ~40% dari total emisi kebakaran di Sumatera dan ~25% berada di Kalimantan (Borneo Indonesia) (Marlier dkk. 2015c). Seperti halnya di perkebunan kelapa sawit, api di perkebunan kayu digunakan untuk membersihkan vegetasi asli secara cepat dan murah agar dapat ditanami spesies bubur kayu yang komersil. Yang termasuk spesies itu adalah Acacia yang tumbuh dengan cepat, yang nilai omsetnya bisa tiga kali lipat lebih cepat dibanding kelapa sawit (~7 tahun dibandingkan dengan ~25 tahun). Jenis kayu ini beresiko  menyebabkan pembakaran pasca panen  lebih sering terjadi (Effendy dan Hardono 2001, Feintrenie dkk. 2010).

Seperti halnya pada 1997 dan terjadi lagi pada 2006, kabut asap parah yang terjadi pada September-Oktober 2015 dimungkinkan terjadi karena kombinasi El Niño dan kondisi Indian Ocean Dipole positif (pIOD). Kedua hal ini  menyebabkan kekeringan dan makin meningkatkan aktifitas kebakaran di daerah karena bahan bakarnya lebih kering sehingga memungkinkan api meloncat dan membakar di luar kendali, atau karena para petani justru memanfaatkan musim kemarau dan melakukan pembukaan lahan lebih banyak daripada biasanya (Field dan Shen 2008, van der Werf dkk. 2008, van der Werf dkk. 2010, Reid dkk.). Sekalipun pemicu-pemicu meteorologis menunjukkan kemiripan selama kejadian kabut asap yang ekstrem seperti ini, distribusi spasial tutupan lahan dan emisi kebakaran berkembang dengan cepat terutama  karena digerakkan oleh meluasnya pasar global kelapa sawit, bubur kayu dan kayu, sekaligus juga meningkatnya pertanian skala kecil (Field dkk. 2009, Miettinen dkk. 2011, Margono dkk. 2014, Gaveau dkk. 2014b, Marlier dkk. 2015a). Perbandingan antara kejadian pada 2006 dan 2015 merupakan hal penting untuk (1) melakukan kuantifikasi kontribusi lokasi-lokasi sumber api spesifik terhadap paparan asap di pusat-pusat populasi dengan angin yang bergerak ke bawah (downwind) selama terjadinya kabut asap yang ekstrim, dan (2) melakukan identifikasi tren  yang mungkin terjadi dalam besaran kontribusi yang terdiferensiasi ini selama lebih dari satu dasawarsa. Kami memilih 2006 dan bukannya 1997 untuk perbandingan ini karena teknologi satelit modern (yaitu, instrumen multi-wave length  dalam  Terra dan Aqua yang dapat menangkap wilayah yang terbakar serta AOD) belum ada sebelum 1999 (King dkk. 2003). Diagnosa terhadap lokasi-lokasi emisi kebakaran yang menghasilkan paparan asap terbesar yang bergerak ke arah tiupan angin dapat mengarahkan pada sebuah rancangan strategi yang lebih sahih untuk mencegah atau meminimalisir kejadian kabut asap yang selalu berulang.

Dalam studi ini, kami mendemonstrasikan potensi sebuah kerangka kerja analitis yang baru untuk menilai dengan cepat yang hampir mendekati waktu sesungguhnya (real-time) atas sumber-sumber emisi dan dampak kesehatan dari episode asap yang sedang terjadi di Equatorial Asia. Kerangka kerja yang disampaikan semua di sini untuk pertama kalinya mengintegrasikan informasi mengenai (1) emisi kebakaran terkait tutupan lahan dan pemanfaatan lahan (Marlier dkk 2015a, 2015b, 2015c), (2)penggerak-penggerak meteorologis transport asap, (3) relasi sumber-reseptor   baik domestik maupun lintas batas (transboundary) yang mengkuantifikasi sensitifitas konsentrasi PM2,5 di wilayah reseptor terhadap lokasi-lokasi spesifik emisi kebakaran (Kim dkk. 2015), Marlier dkk. 2015a, 2015c), dan (4) fungsi-fungsi dampak kesehatan yang terkait dengan data spesifik tingkat mortalitas, struktur usia, dan populasi secara regional. Upaya-upaya yang telah dilakukan sebelumnya untuk mengkuantifikasi dampak kesehatan dari pembakaran biomasa di Equatorial Asia telah terbukti mahal secara komputasional (misalnya Johnson dkk. 2012, Marlier dkk. 2013). Sebaliknya, ketika relasi sumber-reseptor itu sudah dipetakan, kerangka kerja kita yang baru dapat mengkuantifikasi paparan asap dari distribusi emisi kebakaran dimanapun tanpa perlu ada tambahan simulasi-simulasi model yang mahal secara komputasional. Dengan cara ini, para pemangku kepentingan dapat melakukan identifikasi dengan cepat wilayah emisi yang menjadi kunci kontribusi  paparan semacam itu dan mengestimasikan morbiditas dan mortalitas prematur yang diakibatkan  pada populasi yang terkena tiupan angin, bahkan di saat kejadian kabut asap ekstrim terjadi.

  1. Metode

Berikut ini kami mendeskripsikan estimasi  emisi kebakaran serta  observasi permukaan dan satelit yang digunakan dalam analisa ini. Dalam suplemen, kami mendeskripsikan GEOS-Chem adjoint yang digunakan untuk mengkalkulasi paparan asap dan perhitungan dampak kesehatan.

2.1. Emisi Kebakaran

Kami menggunakan estimasi emisi kebakaran mendekati waktu sesungguhnya (real-time) untuk kejadian kabut asap 2015 dari GFAS, sebuah produk yang tersedia untuk pemrosesan pada hari berikutnya pada saat kami melakukan analisa (GFAS, http://join.ek.fz-juelich.de/macc/; Kaiser dkk. 2012). Emisi GFAS berasal dari resolusi horizontal 0,50 x 0,50 dari observasi kekuatan radiative api (FRP) dari instrumen-instrumen Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) yang terpasang pada satelit-satelit Terra dan Aqua. Emisi tersebut didasarkan pada relasi yang diamati antara FRP dan bahan kering yang terbakar untuk delapan jenis tutupan lahan berdasarkan yang digunakan dalam Database Emisi Kebakaran Global (GFED; van der Werf dkk. 2010), yang dilengkapi dengan peta tanah organik dan gambut. Disini kami mendefinisikan asap sebagai jumlah karbon organik (OC) dan aerosol karbon hitam (BC), komponen-komponen utama dari PM2,5 yang terkait asap. Berdasarkan perbandingan dengan AOD satelit, Kaiser dkk. (2012) merekomendasikan pembuatan skala emisi GFAS OC dan BC dengan faktor global 3,4. Tetapi, pengukuran yang lebih rendah (underestimate)  pada Kaiser dkk. (2012) dalam AOD yang dijadikan model mungkin sebagian disebabkan oleh perlakuan model aerosol karbon di atmosfer ketimbang dari emisi (Andrea dkk. 2013). Di lain pihak, kami justru menambah 50% emisi GFAS sehingga didapatkan  hasil model yang lebih cocok dengan observasi permukaan selama 2015 (bagian 2.2). Peningkatan 50% juga menghasilkan total emisi PM2,5 untuk Indonesia pada 2006 yang cocok dengan apa yang dihasilkan dari inventaris emisi lainnya (Marlier dkk. 2015c). Untuk mengidentifikasi sumber-sumber emisi kebakaran, kami mengandalkan estimasi distribusi spasial lahan gambut dan konsesi industri pada 2010, sebagai satu-satunya tahun yang mempunyai data semacam itu (gambar S1). Kami melakukan tumpang-tindih (overlay) terhadap estimasi-estimasi tersebut ke dalam deteksi FRP MODIS dengan ukuran 1 x 1 km2 untuk menandai aktifitas api pada sumber-sumber tersebut (tabel S1). Informasi skala spasial yang lebih halus ini menjadi penting mengingat   beragam jenis pemanfaatan lahan dan tutupan lahan yang banyak dalam setiap kisi sel GFAS yang berukuran 0,50 x 0,50 .

2.2. Observasi PM permukaan

Kami membandingkan estimasi GEOS-Chem adjoint terhadap paparan asap di Singapura selama 2015 dengan konsentrasi PM2,5 yang diamati di lima stasiun di Singapura yang dioperasikan oleh Badan Lingkungan Nasional (NEA; http://nea.gov.sg/ ). Untuk mengisolasi peningkatan PM2,5  permukan hanya karena aeorosol asap, pertama-tama kami mengkalkulasi rata-rata PM2,5 yang diamati selama Juni (13,6 µg m-3), ukuran paling awal yang ada sebelum mulai terjadinya kabut asap. Kami kemudian mengurangi rata-rata konsentrasi non-asap pada bulan Juni dari rangkaian penuh waktu (full-time series)

2.3. Pengamatan satelit

Kami juga membandingkan paparan asap adjoint dari kejadian kabut asap 2006 dan 2015 hasil dari  dua satelit: indeks aerosol ultraviolet (AI) dari Instrumen Pemantau Ozon (Ozone Monitoring Instrument.OMI); Torres dkk. 2002, Torres dkk. 2007) dan kedalaman optik aerosol (AOD) pada 550 nm dari MODIS di satelit Terra (Levy dkk. 2010). Kami menggunakan produk-produk yang terjamin kualitasnya di Level 3 dari kedua instrumen, yang diproses di resolusi horizontal 10. Kedua produk itu sering digunakan untuk menentukan karakteristik aerosol asap di Asia Tenggara (Reid dkk. 2013, Chang dkk. 2015). Dengan menggunakan kedua poduk aerosol yang berbeda, kami mengatasi beberapa masalah ketidakpastian yang terkait dengan properti optik asap yang ada dalam pemulihan (Zender dkk. 2012). Kami juga memaksimalkan penggunaan jumlah data satelit  yang didapatkan selama kurun waktu pengamatan tertentu   pada kondisi lingkungan yang menantang untuk diobservasi dari angkasa karena awan yang sering muncul, garis pantai yang panjang, dan medan yang bergunung-gunung (Reid dkk. 2013).

  1. Hasil

3.1. Emisi dari api

Gambar 1 menunjukkan rentetan tahun 1995-2015 dari indeks NINO3.4 dan Dipole Mode Index (DMI), indeks-indeks standar yang digunakan untuk mewakili fase-fase El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) dan Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD; www.stateoftheocean.osmc.noaa.gov ). El Niño dan fase-fase positif IOD menghasilkan konveksi yang tertekan di seluruh Indonesia, sehingga menyebabkan kekeringan dan peningkatan kegiatan api. September 2015 merupakan El Niño yang paling kuat yang terekam sejak 1997 dan bahkan jauh lebih kuat daripada El Niño pada September 2006. Tetapi, September 2006 mempunyai IOD positif yang sedikit agak lebih kuat. Selama tercatat lebih dari 20 tahun, hanya ada tiga contoh ketika NINO3.4 dan indeks-indeks DMI secara simultan melampaui nilai dari +1:1997, 2006, dan 2015. Sebelum 2015, kejadian kabut asap regional pada 1997 merupakan peristiwa yang paling hebat yang pernah tercatat. Tetapi, karena ketiadaan data satelit selama 1997, fokus kami hanya pada perbandingan pada 2006 sebagai kejadian kabut asap yang paling ekstrim sebelum 2015.

Sumatera Selatan dan Kalimantan Tengah terbakar hebat pada peristiwa di tahun 2006 sehingga menyumbangkan 30% dan 31% dari total emisi OC + BC yang terlepas (gambar 2 dan 3). Emisi kebakaran di Indonesia selama Juli-Oktober 2015 adalah 2,1 Tg  lebih tinggi jika dibandingkan dengan emisi 2006 pada bulan yang sama, atau meningkat 110% (gambar 3). Sumatera Selatan menyumbang 62% (1,3 Tg) perbedaan emisi  antara 2015 dan 2006. Sementara Kalimantan Tengah hanya 18% (0,4 Tg) . Provinsi Jambi, yang bertanggung jawab terhadap kurang dari 5% asap selama 2006, menyumbang emisi tertinggi ketiga dari provinsi manapun pada 2015 dan 12% terhadap perbedaan emisi antara 2015 dan 2006. Kontribusi asap Kalimantan Barat menurun dari 16% pada 2006 menjadi 6% pada 2015.

3.2. Paparan asap selama peristiwa kabut asap

Untuk memperkirakan paparan asap pada tiap wilayah reseptor selama dua peristiwa kabut asap, kami mengalikan emisi GFAS selama Juli-Oktober 2006 dan Juli-Oktober 2015 dengan sensitifitas adjoint yang disimulasikan selama Juli-Oktober 2006 (gambar S3). Meskipun asap yang paling pekat terjadi selama September-Oktober di kedua tahun tersebut (65% dari total emisi kebakaran tahunan pada 2006, 80% pada 2015), kami memperluas horizon waktu untuk memasukkan seluruh musim kebakaran dari Juli-Oktober (83% dari total emisi kebakaran tahunan pada 2006, 93% pada 2015). Seperti telah dijelaskan di atas, kami berasumsi bahwa pola perambatan asap pada 2006 mirip dengan pola pada 2015. Asap yang menuju ke ketiga reseptor menunjukkan sebuah sensitifitas yang tinggi terhadap angin tenggara yang bertiup yang diatur oleh lokasi Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) selama September-Oktober (Chank dkk. 2005). Untuk menguji hasil kami dengan menggunakan meteorologi dari tahun-tahun lainnya kami juga menghitung paparan asap di Singapura karena emisi kebakaran 2015 dengan sensitifitas adjoint selama 2005 dan 2007-2009 (gambar S4). Paparan rata-rata musiman mirip dengan sensitifitas pada 2005-2008, sedangkan pada 2009 ~25% lebih besar daripada rata-rata pada 2006.

Gambar 4 menunjukkan sebuah kombinasi rangkaian waktu konsentrasi NEA PM2,5  harian di Singapura selama 1 Juli sampai 31 Oktober 2015. Konsentrasi asap kembali ke level normal pada akhir Oktober dengan mulainya hujan muson (Cochrane 2015). Data NEA mengungkap rata-rata paparan asap yang diamati pada 30 µg m-3 di Singapura selama Juli-Oktober 2015. Pendekatan kami menghaslikan sebuah rata-rata paparan asap Juli-Oktober 2015 di Singapura sebesar 27 µg m-3, yang konsisten dengan observasi permukaan NEA. Paparan asap terhadap populasi di Indonesia dan Malaysia selama 2015 diperkirakan sebesar 19 µg m-3 dan 14 µg m-3. Rata-rata konsentrasi PM2,5 non-asap pada Juli-Oktober di wilayah-wilayah tersebut adalah ~10-15 µg m-3 (bagian 2.2; simulasi model yang akan datang  GEOS-Chem, tidak diperlihatkan), yang menghasilkan rata-rata paparan PM2,5 tahunan di bawah 50 µg m-3 dan masih dalam jarak linearitas (bagian suplemen 2).

Selama 2006, kami menemukan bahwa paparan pada Juli-Oktober lebih rendah daripada setidaknya hingga faktor 2  pada semua tiga reseptor jika dibandingkan pada 2015, dengan nilai 10 µg m-3 di Singapura, 8 µg m-3 di Indonesia, dan 6 µg m-3 di Malaysia. Gambar 5 membandingkan OMI AI dan MODIS AOD selama September-Oktober 2006 untuk kuantitas-kuantitas tersebut selama September-Oktober 2015. Selama 2015 juga ditunjukkan sebuah perbandingan ukuran antara MODIS AOD dengan AOD pada beberapa tempat dalam Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET; Holben dkk. 1998); tidak tersedia data pada tempat-tempat ini selama September-Oktober 2006. Kedua instrumen satelit menunjukkan sebuah perkiraan level aerosol dua kali lipat   pada 2015 yang dibandingkan dengan 2006 untuk seluruh ranah sehingga ini konsisten dengan hasil paparan adjoint dan mengkonfirmasikan kegunaan pendekatan kami.

3.3. Sumber-sumber emisi

Selama 2006, kontribusi Sumatera Selatan dan Kalimantan Tengah secara kasar sama dengan emisi-emisi regional (30%-31%), tetapi di seluruh tiga wilayah reseptor, Sumatera Selatan menunjukkan lebih dari tiga kali lipat lebih banyak daripada paparan asap dari Kalimantan Tengah (gambar 3). Kalimantan Barat pada 2006 juga hanya memberi kontribusi sebesar 16% terhadap emisi regional, tetapi bertanggung jawab atas tingkat paparan asap tertinggi kedua setelah Sumatera Selatan di Malaysia. Pada 2015, persentase kontribusi terhadap paparan asap dari Sumatera Selatan meningkat 10%-15% secara absolut di ketiga wilayah reseptor jika dibandingkan dengan kontribusi paparan asap dari Sumatera Selatan pada wilayah-wilayah yang sama pada 2006. Kontribusi paparan dari Jambi dua kali lipat pada 2015 jika dibanding 2006. Sementara itu, kontribusi dari wilayah-wilayah lain menurun. Tren paparan asap dari Sumatera Selatan dan Jambi pada 2015 memberikan perubahan signifikan dalam pemanfaatan lahan yang terjadi di wilayah-wilayah itu selama tahun-tahun seperti yang akan dibahas berikut.

Wilayah-wilayah sumber emisi selama kejadian kabut asap pada 2006 dan 2015 berbeda dengan wilayah yang berkontribusi terhadap kejadian kabut asap yang parah pada Juni 2013 yang berdampak parah di Singapura dan Semenanjung Malaka (Gaveau dkk. 201a). Asap pada 2013 telah ditelusuri ke pembakaran lahan pertanian di Riau, sebuah provinsi di sebelah utara Sumatera yang sebagian besar tertutup gambut dan konsesi kelapa sawit (gambar 1; Gaveau dkk. 2014a). Sebaliknya, kami menemukan bahwa Riau tidak memberikan kontribusi yang signifikan tehadap paparan asap terhadap reseptor manapun selama kejadian kabut asap pada 2006 atau 2015. Perbedaan ini sebagian disebabkan oleh musim kebakaran yang lebih lama di Riau daripada di daerah selatan Indonesia yang meningkat kebakarannya pada awal tahun (Reid dkk. 2013). Angin dominan di Riau juga berubah dari arah barat pada Juni ke arah tenggara selama September-Oktober ketika ITCZ bergerak ke arah selatan di sepanjang Equatorial Asia, yang membawa asap dari sana yang pada musim berikutnya lebih mengarah ke barat laut daripada ke Semenanjung Malaka yang penuh populasi.

Untuk memperkirakan kontribusi jenis-jenis pemanfaatan lahan dan tutupan lahan yang berbeda terhadap aktifitas api, kami menggunakan observasi FRP satelit dengan resolusi tinggi (1 km x 1 km) selama Juli-Oktober 2006 dan 2015 (tabel S1). Sementara total FRP tidak langung dapat diperbandingkan dengan emisi, mereka tersedia hampir pada waktu yang sesungguhnya dan dapat mengungkap distribusi spasial aktifitas api dan jenis pemanfaatan lahan yang terpengaruh oleh kebakaran seperti yang ditunjukkan oleh Marlier dkk. (2015c). Misalnya, meskipun konsesi kelapa sawit berdampak sebagai penyebab utama kebakaran lahan gambut di Indonesia (Koh dkk. 2011), kami mendapati bahwa pembakaran di konsesi-konsesi kelapa sawit pada 2006 hanya sekitar 11% dari total FRP di Sumatera dan 32% di Kalimantan. Pada 2015, kontribusi-kontribusi tersebut turun 5% dan 20%. Di Sumatera, FRP di konsesi-konsesi kayu meningkat dari 27% pada 2006 menjadi 55% pada 2015. Sementara itu, di Kalimantan kontribusi konsesi kayu <10% pada 2006 dan 2015. Sebaliknya, persentasi total FRP yang terjadi di lahan gambut meningkat di Sumatera (44%-72%) dan Kalimantan (32%-43%) dari 2006 ke 2015. Alasan kenaikan aktifitas api di lahan gambut belum dapat dipastikan. Pengeringan lahan gambut untuk mempersiapkan pemanfaatan lahan pertanian dalam tahun-tahun tersebut boleh jadi telah membuat lahan gambut lebih rentan terhadap kebakaran (Carlson dkk. 2012, Turetsky dkk. 2015). Analisa lebih lanjut pada kejadian 2015 disertai peta pemanfaatan lahan yang terkini diperlukan untuk sepenuhnya memahami pola-pola tersebut  pada skala spasial yang bermanfaat bagi para pemangku kepentingan.

Gambar 2. Emisi asap selama September Oktober

Emisi keseluruhan karbon hitam dan organik (OC+BC) pada September-Oktober) dari GFAS selama 2006 dan 2015. Panel atas menunjukkan 2006, panel tengah menunjukkan 2015, dan panel bawah untuk perbedaan (2015-2006). Batas-batas provinsi ditunjukkan pada panel bagian bawah dengan garis-garis berwarna, yakni  Jambi pada warna koral, Sumatera Selatan dan Bangka-Belitung dengan warna hijau, Kalimantan Barat biru, dan Kalimantan Tengah ungu.

3.4. Prakiraan dampak kesehatan

Standar utama Badan Perlindungan Lingkungan AS terhadap tingkat PM2,5 rata-rata tahunan yang tidak sehat adalah 12 µg m-3 . Menurut Bank Dunia, kebanyakan Equatorial Asia dekat dengan standar ini pada tahun-tahun yang tidak berasap –nilai tengah tahunan yang dilaporkan pada 2011 adalah 13-14 µg m-3 untuk Indonesia, Malaysia, dan Singapura (http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/EN.ATM.PM25.MC.M3 ). Berdasarkan paparan asap pada 2006 (bagian 3.2), kami memperkirakan ekses kematian berikutnya pada tahun tersebut dengan 95% interval derajat kepercayaan yang dihitung pada Driscol dkk. (2015):34 600 (9000-60 100) di Indonesia, 2300 (600-4000) di Malaysia, dan 700 (200-1200) di Singapura. Pada 2015, kami memperkirakan ekses kematian tersebut menjadi 91 600(24 000-159 200) di Indonesia, 6500 (1700-11 300) di Malaysia, dan 2200 (600-3800) di Singapura. (Lihat bagian suplemen 2 untuk penjelasan kalkulasi dampak kesehatan dan perbandingan terhadap estimasi sebelumnya pada kejadian di 1997). Hasil kami memperlihatkan bahwa mortalitas akibat asap regional adalah 2,7 kali lebih tinggi pada 2015 daripada 2006. Sebab-sebab peningkatannya kami rangkum dalam diskusi dan kesimpulan.

Gambar 3. Paparan Asap berdasarkan Provinsi Penyumbang

Paparan yang diderita penduduk (µg m-3 )

Kontribusi berdasarkan provinsi terhadap rata-rata paparan asap yang diderita penduduk secara regional (kiri) dan total emisi kebakaran di Indonesia  dari OC+BC (kanan) selama Juli-Oktober 2006 dan 2015. Kepulauan Bangka-Belitung termasuk dengan Sumatera Selatan. Batas-batas provinsi ditunjukkan pada gambar 2 dan gambar suplemen S2.

Gambar 4. Asap PM2,5 di Singapura selama 2015 

Rangkaian waktu konsentrasi PM2,5 asap yang diamati setiap hari di Singapura dari Badan Lingkungan Nasional (NEA; www.nea.org ) selama 1 Juli-31 Oktober 2015. Titik abu-abu mewakili nilai tengah (mean) konsentrasi 24 h yang dirata-rata di seluruh lima stasiun: Singapura Pusat, Utara, Selatan, Barat, dan Timur. Lingkaran hitam yang tidak terisi pada pertengahan bulan mewakili rata-rata asap PM2,5 yang diamati setiap bulan dari NEA yang dirata-rata di seluruh lima stasiun. PM2,5 nonasap telah dihilangkan dari rangkaian waktu dengan mengurangi rata-rata konsentrasi PM2,5 yang diamati selama Juni, sebelum terjadinya kabut asap. Segitiga menunjukkan paparan asap rata-rata tiap bulan di Singapura yang diperkirakan oleh studi ini selama Juli-Oktober 2015 dengan menggunakan emisi GFAS yang tidak terskala (biru), emisi GFAS yang diskala oleh faktor 3,4 yang direkomendasikan (merah) dan emisi GFAS yang diskala 50% (hijau).

  1. Diskusi dan kesimpulan

Kombinasi kondisi El Niño dan pIOD pada Juli-Oktober 2015 menyebabkan kondisi kering yang memperparah kebakaran pembukaan lahan dan peladangan di bagian selatan Sumatera dan Kalimantan. Asap tebal yang dihasilkan selalu berada di sepanjang Equatorial Asia selama berminggu-minggu, yang menimbulkan dampak kesehatan masyarakat yang merugikan bagi populasi di Indonesia, Singapura, dan Malasyia. Dengan menggunakan adjoint model kimia global GEOS-Chem bersama dengan fungsi-fungsi tanggap kesehatan (health response functions), kami memperkirakan ~60 µg m-3  dari paparan PM2,5 asap yang menimpa penduduk dan 100 300 kematian prematur di seluruh Indonesia, Malysia, dan Singapura disebabkan oleh kabut asap ekstrim pada 2015.  Nilai-nilai tersebut lebih dari dua kali lipat dari 25 µg m-3  dari PM2,5 asap dan 37 600 kematian prematur yang kami perkirakan selama kejadian kabut asap serupa di wilayah itu pada 2006. Prakiraan dua kali lipat paparan asap regional pada 2015 dibandingkan dengan 2006 ini konsisten dengan pengamatan asap dari OMI AI dan MODIS AOD selama dua kejadian tersebut.

Paparan asap di pusat-pusat populasi sesuai arah tiupan angin pada 2006 dan 2015 berkurang terutama karena pembakaran di Sumatera Selatan sebagai sebuah daerah yang memberikan kontribusi lebih dari 30% emisi regional dan lebih dari 50% paparan asap regional selama dua kejadian tersebut. Kami juga menemukan bahwa Provinsi Jambi, yang belum terbakar secara signifikan pada 2006, memberikan kontribusi sekitar ~20% dari paparan asap yang meningkat antara 2006 dan 2015. Data FRP resolusi tinggi menyatakan bahwa aktifitas api di Sumatera pada 2015 didominasi oleh pembakaran di konsesi-konsesi kayu (55%) dan lahan gambut (72%). Analisa terkini dari sektor-sektor dan jenis-jenis lahan yang berkontribusi terhadap paparan asap akan mengembangkan temuan Marlier dkk. (2015c) dan menguji hipotesa kami.

Gambar 5. Rata-rata pengamatan aerosol satelit selama September-Oktober pada kejadian asap di 2006 dan 2015. Observasi selama kejadian di 2006 ditunjukkan pada dua panel di bagian atas; kejadian di 2015 ditunjukkan di panel bagian tengah. Nilai Indeks Aerosol (AI) dari Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) ditunjukkan di sebelah kiri; kedalaman optik aerosol (AOD) pada 550 nm dari Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) pada satelit Terra berada di sebelah kanan. Piksel abu-abu mengindikasikan data yang hilang. Lingkaran-lingkaran berwarna pada panel MODIS AOD 2015 mengindikasikan rata-rata observasi AERONET pada September-Oktober. Data-data tersebut adalah level 1,5, yang termasuk filter awan tetapi bukan kalibrasi final dari produk tingkat 2,0 yang terjamin kualitasnya. Agar sejalan dengan waktu lintas pagi Terra MODIS, data AERONET telah dirata-rata selama pukul 9 am- 12 pm waktu setempat. Panel bagian bawah membandingkan nilai-nilai 2015 dengan nilai pada 2006 untuk produk-produk kedua satelit, yang dikalkulasikan sebagai rasio 205/2006. Agar jelas, rasio pada kisi kotak-kotak tersebut dengan kandungan aerosol rendah di kedua produk (AOD < 0,5 dan AI < 1,0) tidak ditampilkann.

Ada beberapa keterbatasan pada kerangka kerja model yang kami sampaikan. Pertama, emisi lahan gambut sulit untuk dikuantifikasi sehingga membawa pada estimasi emisi yang melebar di seluruh inventaris api. Kebakaran gambut terjadi di permukaan selama berminggu-minggu atau berbulan-bulan setelah api menyala, yang seringkali temperaturnya terlalu rendah untuk dapat dideteksi dari angkasa (Tansey dkk. 2008). Kontribusi pembakaran di temperatur rendah terhadap emisi asap di lahan gambut tidak dapat dipastikan. Jumlah bahan bakar gambut yang dihabiskan selama terjadi kebakaran juga tidak pasti dan baru-baru ini tidak dihadirkan dalam inventaris emisi secara ekplisit (Konecny dkk.). Keterbatasan kedua, peta konsesi yang kami gunakan dalam atribusi lebih terkait dengan 2010 daripada 2015, dan pembagian konsesi yang tercatat pada 2010 bisa jadi telah dikonversi menjadi jenis pemanfaatan lahan yang lain dari sebelum 2015. Selain itu, sejak analisa kami diadakan pada kisi/grid 0,50 x 0,670, ada beberapa ketidakpastian dari atribusi kami mengenai kontribusi emisi dan paparan terhadap provinsi-provinsi spesifik. Ketiga, metode kami menghasilkan paparan asap rata-rata yang diderita populasi, yang mengabaikan variabilitas spasial dalam paparan di wilayah reseptor. Populasi yang tinggal dekat dengan kebakaran bisa mengalami paparan PM2,5 rata-rata per tahun di atas 50 µg m-3 ambang linearitas dalam fungsi respon konsentrasi yang kami gunakan. Fokus kami juga dibatasi pada mortalitas dewasa karena kurangnya pengetahuan mengenai efek polusi udara terhadap mortalitas anak, sekalipun dampak pada anak-anak mungkin sangat signifikan. Disamping itu, fungsi respon konsentrasi yang digunakan di sini didasarkan pada kajian-kajian yang dilakukan di negara-negara yang berpendapatan tinggi dengan karakteristik kesehatan baseline yang berbeda dan sumber-sumber polusi udara. Sampai sekarang, hanya ada sedikit bukti yang mengkuantifikasi hubungan antara komposisi PM2,5 dan toksisitas, sehingga kami tidak mempertimbangkan faktor ini (Levi dkk. 2012). Pendekatan kami juga tidak mengeliminasi pengaruh potensial secara eksplisit dari efek kesehatan pembaur dari kondisi-kondisi yang terkait dengan meteorologi El Niño-pIOD yang indepenen dari polusi api, seperti misalnya gelombang panas atau ekses debu dari udara karena kondisi-kondisi yang lebih kering. Idealnya kami ingin melakukan validasi hasil-hasil kami dengan studi epidemologi selama bertahun-tahun, tetapi evaluasi semacam itu diluar lingkup analisa kami. Akhirnya, pendekatan kami mengandalkan pada asumsi bahwa pola pergerakan yang kuat antara 2015 dan 2016 mirip sekali karena kondisi meteorologis di belakangnya (bagian 3.1-3.2). Alat-alat pemrediksi pada waktu sesungguhnya (real-time) untuk meramalkan asap di Asia Tenggara sudah ada dan telah dikembangkan baru-baru ini (Hertwig dkk. 2015), tetapi metode-metode tersebut memerlukan investasi komputasional yang substantif dan tidak serta merta menyediakan informasi atribusi sumber geografis yang melekat dengan pendekatan adjoint kami.

Keterbatasan-keterbatasan di dalam pendekatan kami tersebut sangat diimbangi dengan manfaat-manfaat dari (1) pengidentifikasian lokasi-lokasi api utama yang mendekati waktu sesungguhnya (real-time) yang memberikan kontribusi signifikan terhadap paparan asap yang mengikuti arah tiupan angin selama kejadian kabut asap di Equatorial Asia, dan (2) estimasi yang cepat dihasilkan dari dampak kesehatan terkait ketika para pengambil kebijakan dan kelompok-kelompok masyarakat  sipil sedang mencari jalan efektif untuk membahas pembakaran musiman di Equatorial Asia. Secara khusus, pendekatan kami memberikan diagnosa respon awal dari provinsi-provinsi dimana pengelolaan pemanfaatan lahan dan kebakaran yang efektif akan menghasilkan manfaat sebesar-besarnya bagi kesehatan manusia, meskipun saat kejadian asap masih terjadi. (Lihat bagian suplemen 6 untuk pembahasan tantangan yang dalam strategi-strategi pengelolaan kebakaran yang ada di Indonesia). Penerapan kerangka kerja yang ditampilkan dalam kajian ini hanya memerlukan estimasi eksplisit emisi aerosol karbon dari kebakaran secara spasial, sensitifitas adjoint GEOS-Chem yang sudah diarsipkan (tersedia jika diminta), dan model dampak kesehatan. Kalkulasi paparan merupakan multiplikasi satu tahap yang efektif dengan menggabungkan sensitifitas dengan emisi kebakaran, yang hanya perlu beberapa detik untuk bekerja dan memerlukan sumber daya komputasi yang minimal. Segera setelah kejadian kabut asap yang besar, ketika insentif untuk pengambilan keputusan yang konstruktif diantara para pemangku kepentingan menjadi hal yang paling utama, kerangka kerja kami memberikan informasi terinci mengenai konsekuensi kualitas udara yang diakibatkan oleh kebakaran pertanian, praktik pemanfaatan lahan yang umum di Equatorial Asia.

Pendekatan model kami mengkuantifikasi dampak kesehatan masyarakat akibat polusi asap, termasuk asap yang melintas perbatasan internasional. Kapasitas kerangka kerja kami untuk melakukan identifikasi secara cepat di provinsi-provinsi dimana emisi kebakaran terjadi sangat mempengaruhi populasi yang searah dengan tiupan angin dan untuk mengkuantifikasi hasil PM2,5 terkait dengan dampak kesehatan, dapat membantu lembaga-lembaga pemerintah untuk memprioritaskan wilayah-wilayah berhutan dan bergambut yang harus dilindungi dan direstorasi. Lebih lanjut, pendekatan model kami yang terintegrasi dapat membantu para pembuat kebijakan mengurangi dampak kesehatan dari asap dan memperkuat upaya-upaya jangka panjang seperti Reduksi Emisi dari Deforestasi dan Degradasi Hutan (REDD+) untuk mengurangi emisi gas rumah kaca, sehingga memaksimalkan manfaat iklim yang mencegah pelepasan karbon dari pohon, gambut, dan tanah lainnya. Akhirnya, kemampuan kerangka kerja untuk menghubungkan secara kausalitas antara kejadian kebakaran spesifik dengan dampak kesehatan masyarakat di lokasi domestik maupun lintas batas (transboundary) dapat mendukung implementasi perundang-undangan yang akan menghukum individu-individu dan entitas-entitas yang terlibat dalam pembakaran lahan dan hutan secara ilegal di wilayah ini.

Pernyataan Apresiasi

Kode dan bahan pendukung untuk model GEOS-Chem tersedia di www.geos-chem.org. Analisa data satelit MODIS dan OMI yang digunakan dalam makalah ini diproses dengan sistem data dari Giovanni , yang dikembangkan dan dipelihara oleh NASA GES DISC. Pekerjaan ini didanai oleh Rockfeller Foundation dan Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation melalui program Kesehatan dan Lingkungan: Analisa Keterkaitan (HEAL). Miriam Marlier didanai melalui Winslow Foundation. Para pengarang berterima kasih kepada Han Shen Quek dan para kolaborator di Badan Lingkungan Nasional Singapura yang telah menyediakan  pengukuran PM. Kami juga berterima kasih kepada Santo V Salinas Cortijo, Susana Dorado, Brent Holben, Soo-Chin Liew, Mastura Mahmud, Maznorizan Mohamad, Lim Hwee San, dan tim AERONET atas upaya-upaya mereka dalam membangun dan menjaga lokasi-lokasi di Singapura, Kuching, Pontianak, Palangkaraya, ND Marbel University, dan USM Penang. Kami juga berterima kasih kepada Guido van der Werf atas komentarnya yang sangat membantu dalam hal inventaris emisi kebakaran. Akhirnya, kami berterima kasih kepada proyek monitoring iklim dan komposisi atmosfer (MACC-II) karena telah memproses, menjaga, dan mendistribusikan data GFAS. Data GFAS diambil dari sebuah situs online yang dikelola oleh ECMWF. Komisi Eropa dan ECMWF tidak bertanggung jawab atau menanggung segala akibat dari penggunaan dari data ini.

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Cochrane J 2015 Rain in Indonesia Dampens Forest Fires That Spread Toxic Haze www.nytimes.com Online: http://nytimes.com/2015/10/29/world/asia/indonesia-forestfire-toxic-haze.html?_r=0

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Gaveau D L A et al 2014a Major atmospheric emissions from peat fires in Southeast Asia during non-drought years: evidence from the 2013 Sumatran fires Sci. Rep. 4

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Hertwig D, Burgin L, Gan C, Hort M, Jones A, Shaw F, Witham C and Zhang K 2015 Development and demonstration of a Lagrangian dispersion modeling system for real time prediction of smoke haze pollution from biomass burning in Southeast Asia J. Geophys. Res.: Atmos. 120 12605–30

Holben B N et al 1998 AERONET—a federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization Remote Sens.Environ. 66 1–16

Johnston F H, Henderson S B, Chen Y, Randerson J T, Marlier M, DeFries R S, Kinney P, Bowman D M J S and Brauer M 2012 Estimated global mortality attributable to smoke from landscape fires Environ. Health Perspect. 120

Kaiser J W et al 2012 Biomass burning emissions estimated with a global fire assimilation system based on observed fire radiative power Biogeosciences 9 527–54

Kim P S, Jacob D J, Mickley L J, Koplitz S N, Marlier M E, DeFries R S, Myers S S, Chew B N and Mao Y H 2015 Sensitivity of population smoke exposure to fire locations in Equatorial Asia Atmos. Environ. 102 11–7

King M D, Menzel W P, Kaufman Y J, Tanré D, Gao B C, Platnick S, Ackerman SA, Remer L A, Pincus P and Hubanks P A 2003 Cloud and aerosol properties, precipitable water, and profiles of temperature and water vapor from MODIS IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 41 442–58

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FORMULIR PERTANYAAN

JOURNAL: Makalah Riset Lingkungan

PENGARANG: S N Koplitz dkk.

JUDUL: Dampak kesehatan masyarakat atas kabut asap yang terjadi di Equatorial Asia pada September-Oktober 2015: pendemonstrasian sebuah kerangka kerja baru untuk memberikan informasi pada strategi-strategi pengelolaan kebakaran untuk mengurangi paparan asap yang terbawa arah angin.

ARTIKEL ID: erlaa36d5

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Kami telah diberi informasi pendanaan untuk artikel ini seperti berikut. Silakan melakukan konfirmasi apakah informasi ini sudah benar. Winslow Foundation; Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation; Rockfeller Foundation.

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Featured photo © Ardiles Rante / Greenpeace


Public Health Leader Responds to Pledged Commitment to Address Superbug-Producing Waste

The following is a statement by Bill Corr, Senior Advisor at Waxman Strategies and former Deputy Secretary of Health and Human Services, on the announced commitment by thirteen major drug makers to reduce pollution from antibiotic factory supply chains which can contribute to antimicrobial resistance (AMR) and superbugs:

“It is encouraging to see these thirteen companies acknowledge that this is a problem and map out a path to protecting public health and the environment. When it comes to AMR, it’s all or nothing. As long as any source of resistance is allowed to persist, so does the risk to our health. To date, major pharmaceutical companies are contributing to antimicrobial resistance by failing to protect their supply chains. This failure creates a risk to the public health that can be easily addressed.

“While it is still too early to validate the approach outlined by the thirteen drug makers including Pfizer, Novartis, and Merck, public health advocates like myself remain committed to focusing on this issue to see that others connected to antibiotic pollution like Aurobindo, McKessen and Mylan follow suit. Mylan is the company testifying before the House Oversight and Government Reform committee tomorrow on its practices around pricing of the life-saving EpiPens.

“Drugs from Mylan end up in store shelves across the country, as they are a major supplier to retail giant CVS. Retailers like CVS have remained silent on the issue of supplier conduct. Retailers have an important role to play in this and should move to suspend their business relationships with laggards.”


Pharmaceutical Companies Exposed as Contributors to Antimicrobial Resistance

Washington, DC—Ahead of the first-ever United Nations high-level meeting on antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in New York on Wednesday, a coalition of environmental and public health organizations released a major report connecting specific major pharmaceutical companies to the development of superbugs.

Drug resistance through the back door” sheds light on how industry heavyweights like Pfizer, Teva and McKesson contribute to the AMR crisis through commercial ties with serial polluters in China and India. Careless waste management by factories producing antibiotics contaminate local water supplies, leading to the kind of interaction between antibiotics and bacteria that fosters resistance. Ironically, many of the same companies fuelling resistance by failing to protect their supply chains are demanding investment from governments to develop new antibiotics to fight resistance.

Speaking ahead of the UN meeting, Bill Corr, Senior Advisor at Waxman Strategies and former Deputy Secretary of Health and Human Services said, “When it comes to AMR, it’s all or nothing. As long as any source of resistance is allowed to persist, so does the risk to our health care systems. Major pharmaceutical companies are contributing to antimicrobial resistance by failing to protect their supply chains. This failure creates a risk to the public health that can be easily addressed.”

Growing drug resistance is one of the gravest threats to human health this century. In the United States alone, the CDC estimates that at least 2 million people are infected with resistant bugs each year, and at least 23,000 people die each year as a direct result. Globally, annual deaths are projected to reach 10 million per year by 2050, with cumulative economic losses of $100 trillion. Medical experts warn that in the near future, common illnesses, minor surgery, and routine operations such as hip replacements could become high risk procedures.

A 2015 report on AMR from the UK government states that pharmaceutical manufacturing pollution is “a supply chain problem that pharmaceutical companies and their suppliers need to solve together.” However, most companies display a shocking lack of concern about pollution in their supply chains by failing to implement, or demand that their suppliers implement, environmentally sound manufacturing and waste treatment techniques.

Natasha Hurley of UK-based Changing Markets said “Big Pharma’s role in fuelling drug resistance is all too often overlooked when policies to curb the spread of AMR are being discussed. Our research has shown that the industry is failing to take the necessary action to address the threat of a looming environmental and public health crisis in which it is playing a key part. This is why we are calling for major purchasers of antibiotics to blacklist the worst offenders and send a message to the market that failure to bring antibiotic manufacturing discharges under control will directly impact companies’ bottom line. With drug supply chains shrouded in mystery, we also need more transparency on the origin of our antibiotics.”

The report recommends major buyers of antibiotics stop purchasing from pharmaceutical companies contributing to the spread of AMR through irresponsible manufacturing practices. One company it scrutinizes is Aurobindo, a Hyderabad, India -based drug manufacturer with numerous international subsidiaries, including Auromedics Pharma LLC in the United States. Aurobindo has been involved in many pollution scandals in India, and also has commercial ties with antibiotics factories operated by some of China’s largest drug companies, including NCPC, the country’s biggest State-owned pharmaceutical group.

For more information on pharmaceutical pollution and antimicrobial resistance, consult the following resources:

  • Bad Medicine: Sum of Us exposes antibiotic pollution hotspots in China (2015)

Featured photo from Dr. Graham Beards.


Harvard-Columbia study finds that 2015 haze in Indonesia likely caused 100,300 premature deaths

By Etelle Higonnet

Jakarta, 19 September 2016 – A new study being published Monday by scientists at Harvard and Columbia University has estimated that haze from Southeast Asia’s 2015 haze crisis may have caused 100,300 premature deaths. These deaths span three countries: Indonesia, Malaysia, and Singapore. The number of individuals affected in other countries was not calculated.For 2015, the team estimated:

  •     91,600 excess deaths in Indonesia,
  •     6,500 in Malaysia, and
  •     2,200 in Singapore.

These impacts are even greater than a previous major haze event in 2006, when 34,600 deaths occurred in Indonesia; 2,300 in Malaysia, and 700 in Singapore. The numbers show that Indonesians themselves have been the main victims of companies and other actors engaging in deforestation and burning, with more than 90% of victims Indonesian. Indonesians will be the primary beneficiary of government and private sector action to reduce haze.

In addition, the scientific team is in the process of calculating premature deaths from haze for additional years, and for a range of land-use scenarios going forward to 2030. Their full research will be available in 2017.

Their research complements that of other scholars, and sheds important light on which areas are responsible for the haze. It can provide important evidence of damages and liability of companies responsible for burning under Indonesian, Singaporean, and Malaysian law that can be used in both civil and criminal legal proceedings.

Previously, companies and governments in the region provided repeated claims that that fewer than two dozen deaths were recorded. This study reveals the truth. This research shows that haze kills, it kills across borders, and it kills on a massive scale.

 Haze’s impacts

The new research by Harvard and Columbia scientists supplements what we already knew about the harms and illnesses caused by haze:

  • For several months, approximately 43 million people on Sumatra and Kalimantan were inhaling toxic fumes;
  • An estimated half million people in Indonesia sought medical care because of haze;
  • Sumatra and Kalimantan saw levels of the Pollutant Standard Index close to 2,000 when anything above 300 is considered hazardous to human health.The haze from Indonesia’s forest fires contributed to about 3% of the planet’s greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) in 2015;
  • Indonesian haze emissions outstripped the entire US economy’s emissions for 38 out of 56 days in a row (even though the US economy is roughly 19 times the size of Indonesia’s economy);
  • Previous research by the World Bank already established that the 2015 haze cost Indonesia at least USD 16.1 billion (IDR 221 trillion), equivalent to 1.9% of 2015 GDP and roughly twice what the tsunami cost;
  • Six Indonesian provinces declared a state of emergency in 2015 due to haze;

The health impacts documented by the Harvard study only account for a portion of those likely caused by haze. This study doesn’t include the comprehensive toll over the last decade. It only deals with deaths from particulate matter and not mortality from other hazardous pollutants inside killer haze like ozone. In addition, it explores only deaths and not illnesses. Last, the study does not include health effects in children, nor does it examine in-depth the impact on especially vulnerable groups like the roughly 20,000 firefighters battling killer haze up close for extended periods of time; or the combined toxicity of exposure to multiple hazardous elements in the air at the same time.

RecommendationsMore should be done to stop fires and haze

Since the haze crisis, the Indonesian government has undertaken a number of positive steps to prevent a recurrence of the haze crisis, including a moratorium on new palm oil concessions, a ban on development of peat, and the establishment of the Peat Restoration Agency (BRG) that is working hard to conserve and restore peatlands. In part as a result of these efforts, haze in 2016 is significantly reduced from last year. Nonetheless, the results of this study show the severity of the impacts, and that haze prevention efforts across all jurisdictions need to be redoubled. In particular, while the government has ramped up its efforts, private sector efforts are lagging. The following measures can help:

  • Major palm oil, paper, and rubber companies should immediately create a joint monitoring and enforcement system that can ensure that Indonesian commodities connected to haze are prevented from reaching the marketplace.
  • Full implementation of a ban on burning at any scale, backed by substantial public education efforts and support for smallholder access to markets.
  • Palm oil, paper, rubber and other agricultural and forestry companies should take steps to ensure they have the equipment and manpower needed to put out fires (this is already a requirement under Indonesian law, but companies have often not met the standard, and the law has not been fully enforced).
  • Companies that engage in activities that increase the risk of burning, such as draining of peat, deforestation, and poor forestry slash management should be held accountable.
  • Companies and others should rewet peatlands, and provide support to Indonesian efforts to reduce haze, such as the Peat Restoration Agency (BRG).
  • A total ban on further deforestation, including of all High Carbon Stock landscapes, should be announced until data on full health costs has been properly collected and analyzed, and the implications of further deforestation on mortality is fully understood.
  • Completing the “one map” initiative immediately would clarify land ownership throughout Indonesia, helping to resolve recurring land conflicts, standardize mapping, and feed in to Indonesia’s centralized Land Registry. This initiative has been caught up in misplaced concerns about confidentiality that undermine government efforts at conservation, and should be resolved now. In the meantime, both the government and the private sector have access to sufficient maps to hold companies responsible for haze and deforestation.
  • Prioritize fire prevention and investigate, prosecute, and punish those who contribute to haze. Investigations into present crimes must not preclude robust investigations into past burning, including by largepalm oil, paper, and timber companies.
  • Companies tied to any past or present burning should contribute to the health care costs of haze, and take financial responsibility for deaths that research connects to haze from their concessions.

 

Legal and policy Implications:Companies whose concessions are linked to haze-related deaths – and executives – should be held accountable for haze. Moreover, corporate or financial institutions should be held responsible for financing companies known to have encouraged or set fires resulting in killer haze.

Background: how can haze kill people? What is inside killer haze, and what does it do to humans?

Thousands of premature deaths and illnesses are due to the many harmful or toxic elements in killer haze, but a key deadly element is " PM2.5 particles."PM2.5 is what the recent Harvard/Columbia study examined. PM2.5 is particulate matter measuring 2.5 micrometers or less. (For comparison purposes, fine beach sand can be 90 micrometers and a human hair is 50 to 70 micrometers.) PM2.5 particles are so minute that they invade the smallest airways of the human body deep within the lung and the smallest can even find their way into your bloodstream.

However, PM2.5 is not the only threat to human health in haze. Besides particulate matter (PM) composed of organic and black carbon, smoke and gasses from forest and peat fires can contain dangerous elements such as ammonia, cyanide, formic acids, formaldehyde, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, methane, methanol, benzene, mono-nitrogen oxides, dimethyl sulfide, potassium, sulfur oxides, aldehydes, carbonyl compounds, methyl chloride, methyl bromide, non-methane hydrocarbons, ethylene, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons and their oxygenated derivatives, as well as irritant and hazardous volatile organic compounds. These elements are likely to have been present in Indonesia’s killer haze for many years. Depending on what is burning, on ventilation rates, and on the temperature of the fire, the type of particles and chemicals in haze can vary. In some cases, Indonesia’s haze contains extraordinarily high levels of toxic elements separate from, and in addition to, PM2.5 For instance, when the Center for International Forestry Research measured carbon monoxide levels in Central Kalimantan in mid-October 2015, the levels were 30 times higher than normal, even indoors and even over 30 kilometers from the nearest fire.

To complement the Harvard/Columbia modeling, it is useful to look at evidence from a medical, physiological perspective. The most common morbidity and mortality impacts of PM2.5 from smoke from peat and forest fires include all­-cause cardiac conditions, neonatal mortality, cardiorespiratory mortality, exacerbations of respiratory and cardio­vascular conditions, and inflammation. Worldwide, research indicates health impacts of peat fires range from severe to mild: from heart attacks to non-lethal ailments like headaches, watery eyes, fatigue, dizziness, weakness, sleepiness, nausea, vomiting, confusion and disorientation; asthma, bronchitis, chest pain, respiratory infections, hypertension, cardiac dysrhythmia.  Children are particularly vulnerable to repeated and prolonged exposure to PM – as happened to millions of children across Indonesia, Singapore, and Malaysia. Killer haze may harm the growth and functioning of children’s lungs, leading to children’s decreased pulmonary function, increased respiratory symptoms and respiratory infection, and increased chronic lung disease. Prenatal exposure to PM is linked to low birth weight, pre-term delivery, and fetal death.

Regional Responsibility for Haze –where is smoke exposure coming from?

The study includes a detailed analysis of the contribution to haze from different regions, highlighting which areas deserve the most focus. The following graph is excerpted from the study and shows the source of haze:

koplitz
Figure 1: From Koplitz et al 2016 Environmental Research Letters.

In sum, South Sumatra should be a primary focus of efforts to tackle haze, though given the significant health and environmental impacts, Jambi and Kalimantan should also receive attention.

Conclusions

Overall, this new study shows that the haze crisis’ health impacts are far more severe than previously claimed, and should prompt calls for legal accountability for companies engaged in deforestation and burning. The Indonesian government has undertaken many critical efforts to prevent recurrence of the haze crisis. This study shows the need to continue and increase these efforts, and the urgent need for new private sector mechanisms to prevent the 2015 haze crisis from ever recurring.

Etelle Higonnet is the Campaign and Legal Director for Mighty (www.mightyearth.org), a global environmental organization. A graduate of Yale Law School, she has worked for many years on environmental and human rights policy in Southeast Asia. 

Etelle Higonnet is the Campaign and Legal Director for Mighty (www.mightyearth.org), a global environmental organization. A graduate of Yale Law School, she has worked for many years on environmental and human rights policy in Southeast Asia. 

Featured photo © Ardiles Rante / Greenpeace.


UPDATE: Indonesian Government Launches Official Investigation into Korindo for Burning, Deforestation

On Thursday, Mighty’s forest campaign launched in Jakarta with a bang, some high drama, and almost immediate impact.

Two dozen journalists showed up to our inaugural press conference, where, along with Papuan groups SKP-KAMe and Pusaka, we unveiled the “Burning Paradise” report. With stunning images, it documented how the Korean-Indonesian conglomerate Korindo had engaged in systematic illegal burning of rainforest in Papua, and how this one company destroyed 50,000 hectares of forest - an area the size of Seoul.

Three Korindo executives also showed up to the event, only to be dramatically confronted by the assembled media to respond to the charges (see photo, above). In response, Korindo representative Luwy admitted to the fires, as related in the September 1st edition of Kompas, one of the largest circulation Indonesian newspapers:

“This information is valuable for our internal discussion. About the fire, it is true, so what do we want to argue,” said Luwy, a Korindo’s field technical staff who came with his friend to the report release. – Kompas, September 2, 2016.

The investigation and press conference prompted media attention from The GuardianWall Street Journal, The Independent, Mongabay, Straits Times, Eco-BusinessVocativQuartz, Jakarta Globe, Jakarta Post, Deutsche Welle, and many others.

Following the press conference, the Indonesian government announced that it would follow up with its own investigation into Korindo’s deforestation and burning, including sending a field team to explore Korindo’s operations. This is part of a series of actions in which President Jokowi, Environment and Forestry Minister Siti Nurbaya, and Peatland Restoration Director Nazir Foead are significantly improving law enforcement of environmental infractions across Indonesia, hopefully sending an important message to the private sector that they need to do their part as well, like instituting a more transparent, joint action system that can prevent a recurrence of the Korindo debacle.

Korean-Indonesian conglomerate Korindo has cleared Indonesian forest comparable to the size of Seoul, South Korea.
Korean-Indonesian conglomerate Korindo has cleared Indonesian forest comparable to the size of Seoul, South Korea.

And the private sector is starting to respond…mostly. When we shared the evidence with them, Korindo’s primary customers Wilmar and Musim Mas discontinued their purchases from the company. Dozens more consumer companies have also announced that they no longer source from palm oil.

Significantly, however, despite repeated outreach, Burger King and Krispy Kreme (owned by JAB Holdings) have yet to respond – leading to a serious question about whether those companies are frying their doughnuts and French fries in Korindo’s palm oil (in contrast, McDonald’s is undertaking a serious inquiry into its supply chain to ensure no connection to Korindo). The giant ag trader Cargill stands out as the major agriculture trader that has also not responded (this may not be a coincidence given likely supply relationships between Cargill and the non-responsive consumer companies). At a minimum, Burger King and Krispy Kreme’s continued opacity and non-responsiveness shows that they are not living up to the transparency and commitment to deforestation-free supply chains that have become the industry standard.

This week, the Korean Federation for Environmental Movements and Mighty’s Southeast Asia Director Bustar Maitar and Campaigns Director Deborah Lapidus will be joining a tour of universities, governments, and media in Korea to discuss the company’s actions on its home turf. They should find a receptive audience: not only has Korea become a global leader in creating a green economy, South Korean President Park Geun-Hye also showed her support for conservation in Indonesia when she signed an agreement in May with Indonesian president Joko Widodo to help Indonesia stop forest fires….like the ones being caused by Korindo.


Korean palm oil firm accused of illegal forest burning in Indonesia

The Guardian | Sept. 1, 2016

Some of the world’s biggest buyers have stopped trading with Korindo after the emergence of footage claiming to show illegal burning in Papua province.

Read more


Investigation Reveals Deforestation Throughout Palm Oil Supply Chain

Marisa Bellantonio, 203-479-2026
[email protected]

Major palm oil buyers kept Korindo in their supply chain for more than two years after No Deforestation policies

Merauke, Papua, Indonesia (1 September, 2016) -- A groundbreaking new investigation released today by the environmental organization Mighty, the Korean Federation for Environmental Movements (KFEM), the Indonesian humanitarian organizations SKP-KAMe Merauke and PUSAKA, Rainforest Foundation Norway, and Transport & Environment, reveals new satellite, photographic, and video evidence of massive deforestation and illegal burning of pristine rainforest by the Korean-Indonesian corporation Korindo, to support establishment of its palm oil plantations on the Indonesian provinces of Papua and North Maluku.  The report is being released just as the fire season is heating up across Indonesia.  While the report focuses on Korindo’s palm oil business, its sizeable timber operations are having a similar impact, including on the habitat of beloved and rare tree kangaroos and birds of paradise endemic to Papua.

The investigation, including stunning photos and videos, is available at www.MightyEarth.org/BurningParadise.

Read the full technical report here.

“The extent of Korindo’s systematic clearing and burning of Indonesia’s pristine rainforest is downright tragic,” said Deborah Lapidus, Campaigns Director for Mighty. “But what’s shocking is that the world’s major buyers of palm oil kept Korindo in their supply chains for more than two years after adoption of their No Deforestation policies. Although individual companies have made some progress on cleaning up their supply chains, the example of Korindo shows that company-by-company efforts to stop deforestation and human rights abuse are inadequate, and that an industry-wide ban on deforestation is needed immediately.”

“Major palm oil buyers like Wilmar, Musim Mas, ADM, and IOI, who sell to consumer companies like L’Oreal, Biersdorf, and General Mills, did the right thing by ceasing purchases from Korindo when we shared this evidence with them, but they should have caught Korindo’s obvious deforestation and illegal burning sooner. It’s hard to miss 34,000 hectares of deforestation in the middle of a pristine rainforest,” Lapidus added.

In stark contrast to its “green” branding, Korindo has not published any sustainability policies and fails to abide by the No Deforestation, No Peat, No Exploitation (NDPE) standards adopted by major palm oil buyers around the world, which led to it being dropped by the large traders Wilmar and Musim Mas.  In response to this market pressure, on August 9th 2016 one Korindo subsidiary called PT Tunas Sawa Erma, announced a moratorium on forest clearing over the next three months as it develops a NDPE policy. However, Korindo fell far short of action to end deforestation and land rights abuses across its sprawling palm oil and timber operations.

“Korindo is giving Korea a shameful reputation around the world,” said Choony Kim, International Cooperation Specialist with the Korean Federation for Environmental Movements.  “Korean companies should respect customary rights of local communities and adhere to the environmental laws of the countries in which they are operating.”

Papua is a remote Indonesian province with access restrictions for media and civil society. As a result, Korindo has been able to get away with systematic clearing and burning for oil palm plantations with almost no accountability. The extensive photos from this field investigation are therefore extremely rare and difficult to obtain.

“The rainforest has defined life and culture in Papua.  In a few short years Korindo has destroyed the forests that our ancestors called home, the forests that provide us with food, shelter, and clean water,” said Pastor Amo, the religious leader and Director of SKP-KAMe Merauke. “The Indonesian government should be stepping in to stop this company from converting Papua’s natural treasures into industrial farms.”

"Indigenous peoples' rights have been abused systematically by Korindo, which has destroyed the forests that are their source of livelihood. This must stop and the government must protect the indigenous peoples' rights and the forests they rely on," added PUSAKA Director Y.L. Franky.

The report’s main findings reveal:

  • Mass deforestation - In total, Korindo has cleared more than 50,000 hectares of tropical lowland forests in Papua and North Maluku, Indonesia for palm oil; an area approximately the size of South Korea’s capital city, Seoul. Since 2013 alone, it has cleared 30,000 hectares of forests in the two provinces, 12,000 hectares of which were primary forests
  • Illegal fires - All evidence - satellite imagery, hotspot data, and aerial photographs - points to Korindo’s systematic and abundant use of fire during its land clearing processes, which is illegal in Indonesia. The report finds that Korindo was a significant contributor to the 2015 Southeast Asian haze crisis which led to respiratory illness in millions of people, infant deaths and cost Indonesia’s economy $16 billion.  Korindo could also be held accountable under Singapore’s Transboundary Haze law, which can impose fines and jail time on foreign companies driving haze in Singapore.  These findings will be filed with Indonesian and Singaporean prosecutors.
  • Wildlife extinction - Papua is a rainforest paradise, hosting a full 50 percent of the entire Indonesian archipelago’s biodiversity. In fact, the area where Korindo currently operates in North Maluku was one of the stops of British naturalist Alfred Russel Wallace on his famous eight-year Indonesian expedition, where he gathered 100,000 insect, bird, and animal specimens that helped him develop the theory of evolution along with his contemporary Charles Darwin. Papua is home to thousands of unique flora and fauna species, including birds of paradise, rainbow fishes, and tree kangaroos. These small marsupials are at risk of total extinction as they lose their forest habitat.
  • Community rights abuse - Papua is also home to over 300 distinct indigenous tribes, some of whom remain uncontacted. Korindo has generally failed to recognize the right of local communities to give or withhold their Free, Prior and Informed Consent (FPIC) to any new developments on community lands. Korindo’s subsidiary PT Gelora Mandiri Membangun is occupying the farmland and forests of communities in the South Halmahera district of North Maluku. Most of the communities, which have lived there for hundreds of years, are strongly opposed to an oil palm plantation. Korindo is disregarding their customary land rights by continuing its operations there.
  • Continued threat - 75,000 hectares of untouched forests remain in Korindo’s palm oil concessions that are at imminent risk of destruction. Even more remain in Korindo’s logging concessions. In addition, Korindo is paving the way for large scale commodity agriculture in Papua, heralding a gold-rush-type land grab in the area of Indonesia with the largest intact rainforest landscapes.

Korindo, the firm responsible for the deforestation and burning of Papua, is a Korean-Indonesian conglomerate with subsidiaries in natural resources, newsprint paper manufacturing, heavy industries, and finance. The 20,000 employee corporation has affiliates around the globe, including the LA-based company KOUSA which sells paper products and wind towers to companies like Siemens and Clipper.

Palm oil is used in a variety of consumer goods such as shampoo, margarine, ice cream, pizza dough, doughnuts, lipstick, and much more. It is estimated that about 50% of consumer goods contain palm oil. A large portion of palm oil is also now used for biofuel. 45% of the palm oil used in Europe today is burned in car and truck engines, according to a 2016 report by Transport & Environment. According to European policy, all palm oil must be deforestation-free, but Korindo has been selling to many of the trading companies that sell palm oil-based biofuels in Europe.

For more information, including photos and videos from the field of Korindo’s operations visit: www.mightyearth.org/burningparadise

About Mighty

Mighty is a new global environmental campaign launched by the Center for International Policy. Mighty deploys courageous, nimble, and strategic campaigns to make a lasting difference for the environment, with a significant focus on forest conservation.  Using advocacy, grassroots organizing, communications, and research, Mighty works to achieve victories for the planet, its people, and its creatures. Learn more at www.mightyearth.org.


What Companies are Taking Their Responsible Sourcing Commitments Seriously?

IOI Group was suspended from the Roundtable on Sustainable Palm Oil, and instead of cleaning up its act has decided to file a lawsuit. We asked consumer companies to make a commitment to no longer source from IOI Group and its processing arm IOI Loders Croklaan. See where some of the biggest global companies stand on responsible palm oil sourcing.