Liviya James

A Mighty Grant: With Modest Support, This Environmental Group Achieved Big Changes

Inside Philanthropy | Mar. 24, 2018 

Mighty Earth targets groups or industries wreaking havoc on the forests, oceans or air, and pushes them to change. After the release of Mighty Earth’s Arcus-funded report, “Chocolate’s Dark Secrets,” in September, 2017, the major chocolate companies responded with promises to make change.

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Protesters call for ag interests to do more against pollution

WHO NewsRadio 1040 | Mar. 20, 2018

A coalition of groups gathered next to the Des Moines River and the World Food Prize headquarters to honor "World Water Day" Thursday, by calling for corporate ag interests to do more to clean up the environment.

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The Avoidable Crisis

March 2018

Investigation by Mighty Earth, Rainforest Foundation Norway, and Fern reveals large-scale deforestation, fires, and human rights abuses in Argentina and Paraguay’s Gran Chaco connected to the global meat industry.

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The Avoidable Crisis: German Sources

1 Ruhm, Emily and Leif Erik Rehder. “Germany: Retail Foods,” USDA: Global Agricultural Information Network, August 2017, https://gain.fas.usda.gov/Recent%20GAIN%20Publications/Retail%20Foods_Berlin_Germany_8-7-2017.pdf.

2 von Witzke, Harald et al., “Meat Eats Land,” World Wildlife Fund Germany, September 2011, http://www.wwf.de/fileadmin/fm-wwf/Publikationen-PDF/Meat_eats_land.pdf.

3 “The Growth of Soy: Impacts & Solutions,” World Wildlife Fund International, January 2014, http://wwf.pand a.org/what_ we_do/footprint/agriculture/soy/soyreport/.

4 Ruhm, Emily and Leif Erik Rehder. “Germany: Retail Foods,” USDA: Global Agricultural Information Network, August 2017,  https://gain.fas.usda.gov/Recent%20GAIN%20Publications/Retail%20Foods_Berlin_Germany_8-7-2017.pdf.

5 “All countries exporting Soybeans to Germany, in 2016 by weight,” Chatham House: The Royal Institute of International Affairs, 2016, https://resourcetrade.earth/data?year=2016&importer =276&category=87&units=weight. ; “All countries exporting Soybeans to Germany, in 2015 by weight,” Chatham House: The Royal Institute of International Affairs, 2015, https://resourcetrade.earth/data?year=2015& importer=276&category=87 &units=weight.

6 Ruhm, Emily and Leif Erik Rehder. “Germany: Retail Foods,” USDA: Global Agricultural Information Network, August 2017, https://gain.fas.usda.gov/Recent%20GAIN%20Publications/Retail%20Foods_Berlin_Germany_8-7-2017.pdf.

7 Average numbers based on the imports for the past decade (2007-2016) based on the numbers from the following data base: “South America exporting Soybeans to Germany, in 2016 by weight,” Chatham House: The Royal Institute of International Affairs, 2016, https://resourcetrade.earth/data?year=2016&exporter=sac&importe r=276&category=87&units=weight.

8 Lomeli, Luciana Gallardo and James Anderson. “Restoring Degraded Land in Latin America Can Bring Billions in Economic Benefits,” World Resources Institute, October 2016, http://www.wri.org/blog/2016/10/restoring-degraded-land-latin-america-can-bring-billions-economic-benefits.

9 Lomeli, Luciana Gallardo and James Anderson. “Restoring Degraded Land in Latin America Can Bring Billions in Economic Benefits,” World Resources Institute, October 2016, http://www.wri.org/blog/2016/10/restoring-degraded-land-latin-america-can-bring-billions-economic-benefits.

10 Fehlenberg, Verena et al. “The role of soybean production as an underlying driver of deforestation in the South American Chaco,” Global Environmental Change, Vol 45, pp. 24-24, July 2017, https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0959378017305964.

11 Keith, Slack. “The Indigenous of the Paraguayan Chaco: Struggle for the Land,” Cultural Survival Quarterly Magazine, December 1995, https://www.culturalsurvival.org/publications/cultural-survival-quarterly/indigenous-paraguayan-chaco-struggle-land. ; Greene, Caitlyn. “Beyond the Amazon: Deforestation in Argentina,” The Argentina Independent, September 2018, http://www.argentinaindependent.com/socialissues/environ ment/beyond-the-amazon-deforestation-in-argentina/.

12 Lovera, Miguel et al. “La Situación de los Ayoreo Aislados en Bolivia y en las Zonas Transfronterizas con Paraquay,” Iniciativa Amotocodie, 2016, http://www.iniciativa-amotocodie.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/05/InformeAaisladosZonaFronteraPY-BO-Reduced.pdf.

13 de Waroux, Yann le Polain et al. “Land-use policies and corporate investments in agriculture in the Gran Chaco and Chiquitano,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, Vol. 113(15), April 2016, http://www.pnas.org/content/113/15/4021.full.

14 Zak, Marcelo R. et al. “What Drives Accelerated Land Cover Change in Central Argentina? Synergistic Consequences of Climatic, Socioeconomic and Technological Factors,” Springer Science + Business Media, LLC , Vol. 42(2) pp. 181-189, August 2008, https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs00267-008-9101-y.

15 Baumann, Matthias. “Land-Use Competition in the South American Chaco,” Springer International Publishing Switzerland, July 2016, https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-319-33628-2_13.  

16  Fehlenberg, Verena et al. “The role of soybean production as an underlying driver of deforestation in the South American Chaco,” Global Environmental Change, Vol. 45, pp. 24-34, July 2017, http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0959378017305964?_escaped_fragment_=#!.  

17 Baumann, Matthias et al. “Carbon emissions from agricultural expansion and intensification in the Chaco,” Global Change Biology, Vol. 23(5), pp. 1902-1916, October 2016, http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/ 10.1111/gcb.13521/abstract.

18 “Each Country’s Share of CO2 Emissions,” Union of Concerned Scientists: Science for a healthy planet and safer world, n.d. https://www.ucsusa.org/global-warming/science-and-impacts/science/each-countrys-share-of-co2.html#.WniuxZOpnBJ.

19 “Tree cover loss,” Global Forest Watch Commodities, n.d. http://commodities.globalforestwatch.org/#v=map& lyrs=tcc%2ChansenLoss&x=-60.69&y=-23.5&l=5. ; “Argentina ranks ninth in infamous ‘deforestation list,” Buenos Aires Herald, http://www.buenosairesherald.com/article/198242/argentina-ranks-ninth-in-infamous-%E2%80%98deforesta.

20 “Deforestatión en el norte de Argentina,” Greenpeace Argentina, January 2017,  http://www.greenpeace.org/a rgentina/Global/argentina/2017/1/Deforestacion-norte-Argentina-Anual-2016.pdf.

21 “Aplicación del “Fondo Nacional para el Enriquecimiento y la Conservación de los Bosques Nativos” establecido per la Ley 26.331,” Greenpeace Argentina, November 2010,   https://www.greenpeace.org/argentina/Global /argentina/report/2010/Bosques/Ley_Bosques/aplicacion-ley-de-bosques-fondos.pdf.

22 Guidi, Ruxandra. “Seven million hectares of forests have been lost in Argentina over the past 20 years,” Mongabay, February 2016,  https://news.mongabay.com/2016/02/seven-million-hectares-of-forests-have-been-lost-in-argentina-in-the-past-20-years/.

23 “Deforestation in the Chaco spikes in the wake of “illegal” presidential decree stripping back environmental safeguards,” Illegal Deforestation Monitor, January 2018, http://www.bad-ag.info/deforestation-in-the-chaco-spikes-in-the-wake-of-illegal-presidential-decree-stripping-back-environmental-safeguards/.

24  Riveros, Fernando. “The Gran Chaco,” Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, July 2012,  http://archive.today/2012.07.30-004747/http://www.fao.org/ag/A GP/agpc/doc/Bulletin/GranChaco.htm.

25 Semper-Pascual, Asunción et al. “Mapping extinction debt highlights conservation opportunities for birds and mammals in the South American Chaco,” Journal of Applied Ecology, January 2018, http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/1365-2664.13074/full.

26 “Protecting the Atlantic Forest in Paraguay,” World Land Trust, n.d., http://www.worldlandtrust.org/projects/paraguay/guyra-reta-reserve.

27 Law No. 5.045/13

28 “Plan Belgrano: Avanza la recuperación del tren de cargas en Salta y Jujuy,” Argentinian Government, March 2017, https://www.argentina.gob.ar/noticias/plan-belgrano-avanza-la-recuperacion-del-tren-de-cargas-en-salta-y-jujuy.

29 “Argentina plans railways to expand agriculture in north,” The Western Producer, April 2017,  https://www.producer.com/2017/04/argentina-plans-railways-to-expand-agriculture-in-north/. ; “Plan Belgrano: Avanza la recuperación del tren de cargas en Salta y Jujuy,” Argentinian Government, March 2017, https://www.argentina.gob.ar/noticias/plan-belgrano-avanza-la-recuperacion-del-tren-de-cargas-en-salta-y-jujuy.

30 “Argentina – Soy,” Trase.Earth, 2016, https://goo.gl/SSaoT6.

31 “Argentina – Soy,” Trase.Earth, 2016, https://goo.gl/SSaoT6.

32 “South America exporting Soybeans to Europe, in 2016 by weight,” Chatham House: The Royal Institute of International Affairs, 2016,  https://resourcetrade.earth/data?year=2016&exporter=sac&importer=eur& category=87&units=weight.

33 Mooney, Pat et al. “Too Big to Feed,” International Panel of Experts on Sustainable Food Systems, October 2017, http://www.ipesfood.org/images/Reports/Concentration_FullReport.pdf.

34 Murphy, Sophia et al. “Cereal Secrets: The world’s largest grain traders and global agriculture,” Oxfam Research Reports, August 2012, https://www.oxfam.org/sites/www.oxfam.org/files/rr-cereal-secrets-grain-traders-agriculture-30082012-en.pdf.

35 “Instalaciones: Acopios,” Bunge, n.d. https://www.bungeargentina.com/es/instalaciones/acopios.

36 “Zero Deforestation: Building 21st century value chains,” Bunge, n.d. https://www.bunge.com/sustainability/zero-deforestation.  ; “Ending Deforestation: Cargill is committed to protecting forests and ensuring deforestation-free supply chains,” Cargill, n.d. https://www.cargill.com/sustainability/deforestation.

37 Bellantonio, Marisa et al. “The Ultimate Mystery Meat,” Mighty Earth, February 2017, http://www.mightyearth.org/mysterymeat/.

38 “Ministry confirms illegality of deforestation in farms owned by politically-connected businessman in Argentina,” Illegal Deforestation Monitor, January 2018, http://www.bad-ag.info/argentinas-government-confirms-illegality-of-deforestation-in-farms-owned-by-politically-connected-businessman/.

39  “Argentina: Country Environmental Analysis,” World Bank Group, May 2016, http://documentos.bancomundial.org/curated/es/218361479799045279/pdf/109527-ENGLISH-PUBLIC-ARG-CEA-Country-Environmental-Analysis-English.pdf.

40 Kelland, Kate. “In glyphosate review, WHO cancer agency edited out ‘non-carcinogenic’ findings,” Reuters, October 2017, https://www.reuters.com/investigates/special-report/who-iarc-glyphosate/. ; Cressey, Daniel. “Widely Used Herbicide Linked to Cancer,” Scientific American, March 2015, https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/widely-used-herbicide-linked-to-cancer/.

41 “Macrons says glyphosate to be banned in France within three years,” Reuters, November 2017,  https://www.reuters.com/article/us-eu-health-glyphosate-macron/macron-says-glyphosate-to-be-banned-in-france-within-three-years-idUSKBN1DR259.

42 Kalverkamp, Michael Álvarez et al. “Meat Atlas: Facts and figures about the animals we eat,” Heinrich Böll Stiftung, January 2014, https://www.boell.de/sites/default/files/meat_atlas2014_kommentierbar.pdf.

43 Ueker, Marly Elaine et al. “Parenteral exposure to pesticides and occurrence of congenital malformations: hospital-based case-control stody,” BMC Pediatrics, Vol. 16(125), August 2016, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4983026/. ;  Ruderman, L et al. “Análisis de la Salud Colectiva Ambiental de Malvinas Argentina-Córdoba Una investigación socio- ambiental y sanitaria a través de técnicas cualitativas y relevamiento epidemiológico cuantitativo,” Reduas, August 2012, http://www.reduas.com.ar/wp-content/uploads/downloads/2013/02/Informe-Malvinas-corregido1.pdf.

44 This interview was conducted in the indigenous language Guarani and was later translated into English.

45 This interview was conducted in the indigenous language Guarani, and was later translated into English.

46 “Ley Nº 904/81,” Estuato do las Comunidades Indíegenas, n.d.  http://www.tierraviva.org.py/wp-content/uploads/2013/11/PDF.pdf.

47 Paraguayan Law no. 904/81, article 17.

48 Tyrrell, Kelly April. “Study shows Brazil’s Soy Moratorium still needed to preserve the Amazon,” University of Wisconsin-Madison, January 2015,  https://news.wisc.edu/study-shows-brazils-soy-moratorium-still-needed-to-preserve-amazon/.

49  “Companies pledging to tackle soy and cattle driven deforestation in Brazil’s Cerrado nearly triples in just three months,” Tropical Forest Alliance 2020, January 2018, https://www.tfa2020.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/01/Press-release-marking-the-significant-increase-in-company-signatories-to-the-Cerrado-Manifesto-Statement-of-Support-25-Jan-2018.pdf

50 “South America exporting Soybeans to Germany, in 2016 by weight,” Chatham House: The Royal Institute of International Affairs, 2016,  https://resourcetrade.earth/data?year=2016&exporter=sac&importer=276& category=87&units=weight.

51 “Glyphosate,” European Commission, n.d. https://ec.europa.eu/food/plant/pesticides/glyphosate_en; https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/widely-used-herbicide-linked-to-cancer/. ; Kelland, Kate. “In glyphosate review, WHO cancer agency edited out ‘non-carcinogenic’ findings,” Reuters, October 2017,  https://www.reuters.com/investigates/special-report/who-iarc-glyphosate/.

52 Pritchard, Janet. “Developing EU measures to address forest-risk commodities: What can be learned from EU regulation of other sectors?,” Fern, November 2016, http://www.fern.org/sites/fern.org/files/Developing %20EU%20measures_0.pdf.

53 “Agriculture and deforestation,” Fern, April 2017, http://www.fern.org/capreform.

 


The Avoidable Crisis: French Sources

1 “All countries exporting Soybeans to France, in 2016 by weight,” Chatham House: The Royal Institute of International Affairs, 2016, https://resourcetrade.earth/data?year=2016&importer=251&category=87&uni ts=weight.

2  Cette estimation se fonde sur les importations de la dernière décennie (2007-2016), d'après les chiffres figurant dans la base de données suivante: “All countries exporting Soybeans to Germany by weight,” Chatham House: The Royal Institute of International Affairs, 2007-2016, https://resourcetrade.earth/datayear=2007&exporter=sac&importer=251&category=87&units=weight.

3 Lomeli, Luciana Gallardo and James Anderson. “Restoring Degraded Land in Latin America Can Bring Billions in Economic Benefits,” World Resources Institute, October 2016, http://www.wri.org/blog/2016/10/restoring-degraded-land-latin-america-can-bring-billions-economic-benefits.

4 Fehlenberg, Verena et al. “The role of soybean production as an underlying driver of deforestation in the South American Chaco,” Global Environmental Change, Vol. 45, pp. 24-34, July 2017, http://www.sciencedirect.c om/science/article/pii/S0959378017305964?_escaped_fragment_=#!.

5 Keith, Slack. “The Indigenous of the Paraguayan Chaco: Struggle for the Land,” Cultural Survival Quarterly Magazine, December 1995, https://www.culturalsurvival.org/publications/cultural-survival-quarterly/indigenous-paraguayan-chaco-struggle-land. ; Greene, Caitlyn. “Beyond the Amazon: Deforestation in Argentina,” The Argentina Independent, September 2018, http://www.argentinaindependent.com/socialissues/environ ment/beyond-the-amazon-deforestation-in-argentina/.

6 Lovera, Miguel et al. “La Situación de los Ayoreo Aislados en Bolivia y en las Zonas Transfronterizas con Paraquay,” Iniciativa Amotocodie, 2016, http://www.iniciativa-amotocodie.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/05/InformeAaisladosZonaFronteraPY-BO-Reduced.pdf.

7 de Waroux, Yann le Polain et al. “Land-use policies and corporate investments in agriculture in the Gran Chaco and Chiquitano,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, Vol. 113(15), April 2016, http://www.pnas.org/content/113/15/4021.full.

8 Zak, Marcelo R. et al. “What Drives Accelerated Land Cover Change in Central Argentina? Synergistic Consequences of Climatic, Socioeconomic and Technological Factors,” Springer Science + Business Media, LLC , Vol. 42(2) pp. 181-189, August 2008, https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs00267-008-9101-y.

9 Baumann, Matthias. “Land-Use Competition in the South American Chaco,” Springer International Publishing Switzerland, July 2016, https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-319-33628-2_13.  

10  Fehlenberg, Verena et al. “The role of soybean production as an underlying driver of deforestation in the South American Chaco,” Global Environmental Change, Vol. 45, pp. 24-34, July 2017, https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0959378017305964 

11 Baumann, Matthias et al. “Carbon emissions from agricultural expansion and intensification in the Chaco,” Global Change Biology, Vol. 23(5), pp. 1902-1916, October 2016, http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/ 10.1111/gcb.13521/abstract.

12 “Each Country’s Share of CO2 Emissions,” Union of Concerned Scientists: Science for a healthy planet and safer world, n.d. https://www.ucsusa.org/global-warming/science-and-impacts/science/each-countrys-share-of-co2.html#.WniuxZOpnBJ.

13 “Tree cover loss,” Global Forest Watch Commodities, n.d. http://commodities.globalforestwatch.org/#v=map& lyrs=tcc%2ChansenLoss&x=-60.69&y=-23.5&l=5. ; “Argentina ranks ninth in infamous ‘deforestation list,” Buenos Aires Herald, http://www.buenosairesherald.com/article/198242/argentina-ranks-ninth-in-infamous-%E2%80%98deforesta.

14 “Deforestatión en el norte de Argentina,” Greenpeace Argentina, January 2017,  http://www.greenpeace.org/a rgentina/Global/argentina/2017/1/Deforestacion-norte-Argentina-Anual-2016.pdf 

15 “Aplicación del “Fondo Nacional para el Enriquecimiento y la Conservación de los Bosques Nativos” establecido per la Ley 26.331,” Greenpeace Argentina, November 2010,   https://www.greenpeace.org/argentina/Global /argentina/report/2010/Bosques/Ley_Bosques/aplicacion-ley-de-bosques-fondos.pdf.

16 Guidi, Ruxandra. “Seven million hectares of forests have been lost in Argentina over the past 20 years,” Mongabay, February 2016,  https://news.mongabay.com/2016/02/seven-million-hectares-of-forests-have-been-lost-in-argentina-in-the-past-20-years/.

17 “Deforestation in the Chaco spikes in the wake of “illegal” presidential decree stripping back environmental safeguards,” Illegal Deforestation Monitor, January 2018, http://www.bad-ag.info/deforestation-in-the-chaco-spikes-in-the-wake-of-illegal-presidential-decree-stripping-back-environmental-safeguards/.

18 Riveros, Fernando. “The Gran Chaco,” Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, July 2012,  http://archive.today/2012.07.30-004747/http://www.fao.org/ag/AGP/agpc/doc/Bulletin/GranChaco.htm 

19 Semper-Pascual, Asunción et al. “Mapping extinction debt highlights conservation opportunities for birds and mammals in the South American Chaco,” Journal of Applied Ecology, January 2018, http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/1365-2664.13074/full.

20 “Protecting the Atlantic Forest in Paraguay,” World Land Trust, n.d., http://www.worldlandtrust.org/projects/paraguay/guyra-reta-reserve.

21 Law No. 5.045/13

22 “Plan Belgrano: Avanza la recuperación del tren de cargas en Salta y Jujuy,” Argentinian Government, March 2017, https://www.argentina.gob.ar/noticias/plan-belgrano-avanza-la-recuperacion-del-tren-de-cargas-en-salta-y-jujuy.

23 “Argentina plans railways to expand agriculture in north,” The Western Producer, April 2017,  https://www.producer.com/2017/04/argentina-plans-railways-to-expand-agriculture-in-north/.“Plan Belgrano: Avanza la recuperación del tren de cargas en Salta y Jujuy,” Argentinian Government, March 2017, https://www.argentina.gob.ar/noticias/plan-belgrano-avanza-la-recuperacion-del-tren-de-cargas-en-salta-y-jujuy.

24 “All countries exporting Soybeans to Europe, in 2016 by weight,” Chatham House: The Royal Institute of International Affairs, 2016, https://resourcetrade.earth/data?year=2016&importer=251&category=87&uni ts=weight.

25 Mooney, Pat et al. “Too Big to Feed,” International Panel of Experts on Sustainable Food Systems, October 2017, http://www.ipesfood.org/images/Reports/Concentration_FullReport.pdf.

26 “Instalaciones: Acopios,” Bunge, n.d. https://www.bungeargentina.com/es/instalaciones/acopios.

27 “Zero Deforestation: Building 21st century value chains,” Bunge, n.d. https://www.bunge.com/sustainability/zero-deforestation.  ; “Ending Deforestation: Cargill is committed to protecting forests and ensuring deforestation-free supply chains,” Cargill, n.d. https://www.cargill.com/sustainability/deforestation.

28 Bellantonio, Marisa et al. “The Ultimate Mystery Meat,” Mighty Earth, February 2017, http://www.mightyearth.org/mysterymeat/.

29 “Ministry confirms illegality of deforestation in farms owned by politically-connected businessman in Argentina,” Illegal Deforestation Monitor, January 2018, http://www.bad-ag.info/argentinas-government-confirms-illegality-of-deforestation-in-farms-owned-by-politically-connected-businessman/.

30  “Argentina: Country Environmental Analysis,” World Bank Group, May 2016, http://documentos.bancomundial.org/curated/es/218361479799045279/pdf/109527-ENGLISH-PUBLIC-ARG-CEA-Country-Environmental-Analysis-English.pdf.

31 Kelland, Kate. “In glyphosate review, WHO cancer agency edited out ‘non-carcinogenic’ findings,” Reuters, October 2017, https://www.reuters.com/investigates/special-report/who-iarc-glyphosate/. ; Cressey, Daniel. “Widely Used Herbicide Linked to Cancer,” Scientific American, March 2015, https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/widely-used-herbicide-linked-to-cancer/.

32 Kalverkamp, Michael Álvarez et al. “Meat Atlas: Facts and figures about the animals we eat,” Heinrich Böll Stiftung, January 2014, https://www.boell.de/sites/default/files/meat_atlas2014_kommentierbar.pdf.

33 Ueker, Marly Elaine et al. “Parenteral exposure to pesticides and occurrence of congenital malformations: hospital-based case-control stody,” BMC Pediatrics, Vol. 16(125), August 2016, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4983026/. ;  Ruderman, L et al. “Análisis de la Salud Colectiva Ambiental de Malvinas Argentina-Córdoba Una investigación socio- ambiental y sanitaria a través de técnicas cualitativas y relevamiento epidemiológico cuantitativo,” Reduas, August 2012, http://www.reduas.com.ar/wp-content/uploads/downloads/2013/02/Informe-Malvinas-corregido1.pdf.

34 Cet entretien a été mené en langue Guarani, puis traduit en anglais

35 Cet entretien a été mené en langue Guarani puis traduit en anglais

36 “Ley Nº 904/81,” Estuato do las Comunidades Indíegenas, n.d.  http://www.tierraviva.org.py/wp-content/uploads/2013/11/PDF.pdf.

37 Loi paraguayenne N°. 904/81, article 17.

38  “Companies pledging to tackle soy and cattle driven deforestation in Brazil’s Cerrado nearly triples in just three months,” Tropical Forest Alliance 2020, January 2018, https://www.tfa2020.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/01/Press-release-marking-the-significant-increase-in-company-signatories-to-the-Cerrado-Manifesto-Statement-of-Support-25-Jan-2018.pdf

39 “All countries exporting Soybeans to France, in 2016 by weight,” Chatham House: The Royal Institute of International Affairs, 2016, https://resourcetrade.earth/data?year=2016&importer=251&category=87&uni ts=weight.

40 “Glyphosate,” European Commission, n.d. https://ec.europa.eu/food/plant/pesticides/glyphosate_en; https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/widely-used-herbicide-linked-to-cancer/. ; Kelland, Kate. “In glyphosate review, WHO cancer agency edited out ‘non-carcinogenic’ findings,” Reuters, October 2017,  https://www.reuters.com/investigates/special-report/who-iarc-glyphosate/.

41 Flach, Bob et al. “EU Biofuels Annual 2017,” USDA: Global Agricultural Information Network, June 2017, https://gain.fas.usda.gov/Recent%20GAIN%20Publications/Biofuels%20Annual_The%20Hague_EU-28_6-19-2017.pdf.

42 Pritchard, Janet. “Developing EU measures to address forest-risk commodities: What can be learned from EU regulation of other sectors?,” Fern, November 2016, http://www.fern.org/sites/fern.org/files/Developing %20EU%20measures_0.pdf.

43 “Agriculture and deforestation,” Fern, April 2017, http://www.fern.org/capreform.


The Avoidable Crisis: EU Sources

1 “Meat Consumption,” Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development Data, 2018, https://data.oecd.org/agroutput/meat-consumption.htm.

2 “The Growth of Soy: Impacts & Solutions,” World Wildlife Fund International, January 2014, http://wwf.pana.org/what_ we_do/footprint/agriculture/soy/soyreport/.

3 “Soja Barometer,” Dutch Soy Coalition, April 2014, http://soycoalition.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/04/Soja-Barometer2014_UK_FINAL2.pdf. 

4 “All countries exporting Soybeans to Europe, in 2016 by weight,” Chatham House: The Royal Institute of International Affairs, 2016 https://resourcetrade.earth/datayear=2016&importer= eur&category=87&units=weight.

5 “Agricultural commodity consumption in the EU – Policy Brief,” Fern,  May 2017, http://www.fern.org/sites/fern.org/files/Soybean%20briefing%20paper%204pp%20A4%20WEB%281%2.pdf.

6  “Data & Trends: EU Food and Drink Industry,” FoodDrink Europe, October 2017, http://www.fooddrinkeurope.eu/uploads/publications_documents/DataandTrends_Report_2017.pdf.

7 Average numbers based on the imports for the past decade (2007-2016) based on the numbers from the following data base: “All countries exporting Soybeans to Europe by weight,” Chatham House: The Royal Institute of International Affairs, 2007-2016, https://resourcetrade.earth/datayear=2007&exporter=sac&importer=251&category=87&units=weight.

8 Lomeli, Luciana Gallardo and James Anderson. “Restoring Degraded Land in Latin America Can Bring Billions in Economic Benefits,” World Resources Institute, October 2016, http://www.wri.org/blog/2016/10/restoring-degraded-land-latin-america-can-bring-billions-economic-benefits.

9 Fehlenberg, Verena et al. “The role of soybean production as an underlying driver of deforestation in the South American Chaco,” Global Environmental Change, Vol 45, pp. 24-24, July 2017, https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0959378017305964. 

10 Keith, Slack. “The Indigenous of the Paraguayan Chaco: Struggle for the Land,” Cultural Survival Quarterly Magazine, December 1995, https://www.culturalsurvival.org/publications/cultural-survival-quarterly/indigenous-paraguayan-chaco-struggle-land. ; Greene, Caitlyn. “Beyond the Amazon: Deforestation in Argentina,” The Argentina Independent, September 2018, http://www.argentinaindependent.com/socialissues/environ ment/beyond-the-amazon-deforestation-in-argentina/.

11 Lovera, Miguel et al. “La Situación de los Ayoreo Aislados en Bolivia y en las Zonas Transfronterizas con Paraquay,” Iniciativa Amotocodie, 2016, http://www.iniciativa-amotocodie.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/05/InformeAaisladosZonaFronteraPY-BO-Reduced.pdf.

12 de Waroux, Yann le Polain et al. “Land-use policies and corporate investments in agriculture in the Gran Chaco and Chiquitano,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, Vol. 113(15), April 2016, http://www.pnas.org/content/113/15/4021.full.

13 Zak, Marcelo R. et al. “What Drives Accelerated Land Cover Change in Central Argentina? Synergistic Consequences of Climatic, Socioeconomic and Technological Factors,” Springer Science + Business Media, LLC , Vol. 42(2) pp. 181-189, August 2008, https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs00267-008-9101-y.

14 Baumann, Matthias. “Land-Use Competition in the South American Chaco,” Springer International Publishing Switzerland, July 2016, https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-319-33628-2_13.

15  Fehlenberg, Verena et al. “The role of soybean production as an underlying driver of deforestation in the South American Chaco,” Global Environmental Change, Vol. 45, pp. 24-34, July 2017, https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0959378017305964.

16 Baumann, Matthias et al. “Carbon emissions from agricultural expansion and intensification in the Chaco,” Global Change Biology, Vol. 23(5), pp. 1902-1916, October 2016, http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/ 10.1111/gcb.13521/abstract.

17 “Each Country’s Share of CO2 Emissions,” Union of Concerned Scientists: Science for a healthy planet and safer world, n.d. https://www.ucsusa.org/global-warming/science-and-impacts/science/each-countrys-share-of-co2.html#.WniuxZOpnBJ.

18 “Tree cover loss,” Global Forest Watch Commodities, n.d. http://commodities.globalforestwatch.org/#v=map& lyrs=tcc%2ChansenLoss&x=-60.69&y=-23.5&l=5. ; “Argentina ranks ninth in infamous ‘deforestation list,” Buenos Aires Herald, http://www.buenosairesherald.com/article/198242/argentina-ranks-ninth-in-infamous-%E2%80%98deforesta.

19 “Deforestatión en el norte de Argentina,” Greenpeace Argentina, January 2017,  http://www.greenpeace.org/a rgentina/Global/argentina/2017/1/Deforestacion-norte-Argentina-Anual-2016.pdf.

20 “Aplicación del “Fondo Nacional para el Enriquecimiento y la Conservación de los Bosques Nativos” establecido per la Ley 26.331,” Greenpeace Argentina, November 2010,   https://www.greenpeace.org/argentina/Global /argentina/report/2010/Bosques/Ley_Bosques/aplicacion-ley-de-bosques-fondos.pdf.

21 Guidi, Ruxandra. “Seven million hectares of forests have been lost in Argentina over the past 20 years,” Mongabay, February 2016,  https://news.mongabay.com/2016/02/seven-million-hectares-of-forests-have-been-lost-in-argentina-in-the-past-20-years/.

22 “Deforestation in the Chaco spikes in the wake of “illegal” presidential decree stripping back environmental safeguards,” Illegal Deforestation Monitor, January 2018, http://www.bad-ag.info/deforestation-in-the-chaco-spikes-in-the-wake-of-illegal-presidential-decree-stripping-back-environmental-safeguards/.

23  Riveros, Fernando. “The Gran Chaco,” Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, July 2012,  http://archive.today/2012.07.30-004747/http://www.fao.org/ag/A GP/agpc/doc/Bulletin/GranChaco.htm.

24 Semper-Pascual, Asunción et al. “Mapping extinction debt highlights conservation opportunities for birds and mammals in the South American Chaco,” Journal of Applied Ecology, January 2018, http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/1365-2664.13074/full.

25 “Protecting the Atlantic Forest in Paraguay,” World Land Trust, n.d., http://www.worldlandtrust.org/projects/paraguay/guyra-reta-reserve.

26 Law No. 5.045/13

27 “Plan Belgrano: Avanza la recuperación del tren de cargas en Salta y Jujuy,” Argentinian Government, March 2017, https://www.argentina.gob.ar/noticias/plan-belgrano-avanza-la-recuperacion-del-tren-de-cargas-en-salta-y-jujuy.

28 “Argentina plans railways to expand agriculture in north,” The Western Producer, April 2017,  https://www.producer.com/2017/04/argentina-plans-railways-to-expand-agriculture-in-north/.

29 “Plan Belgrano: Avanza la recuperación del tren de cargas en Salta y Jujuy,” Argentinian Government, March 2017, https://www.argentina.gob.ar/noticias/plan-belgrano-avanza-la-recuperacion-del-tren-de-cargas-en-salta-y-jujuy.

30 “Argentina – Soy,” Trase.Earth, 2016, https://goo.gl/SSaoT6.

31 “All countries exporting Soybeans to Europe, in 2016 by weight,” Chatham House: The Royal Institute of International Affairs, 2016 https://resourcetrade.earth/data?year=2016&importer= eur&category=87&units=weight.

32 Mooney, Pat et al. “Too Big to Feed,” International Panel of Experts on Sustainable Food Systems, October 2017, http://www.ipes-food.org/images/Reports/Concentration_FullReport.pdf.

33 Murphy, Sophia et al. “Cereal Secrets: The world’s largest grain traders and global agriculture,” Oxfam Research Reports, August 2012, https://www.oxfam.org/sites/www.oxfam.org/files/rr-cereal-secrets-grain-traders-agriculture-30082012-en.pdf 

34 “Instalaciones: Acopios,” Bunge, n.d. https://www.bungeargentina.com/es/instalaciones/acopios.

35 “Zero Deforestation: Building 21st century value chains,” Bunge, n.d. https://www.bunge.com/sustainability/zero-deforestation.  ; “Ending Deforestation: Cargill is committed to protecting forests and ensuring deforestation-free supply chains,” Cargill, n.d. https://www.cargill.com/sustainability/deforestation.

36 Bellantonio, Marisa et al. “The Ultimate Mystery Meat,” Mighty Earth, February 2017, http://www.mightyearth.org/mysterymeat/ 

37 “Ministry confirms illegality of deforestation in farms owned by politically-connected businessman in Argentina,” Illegal Deforestation Monitor, January 2018, http://www.bad-ag.info/argentinas-government-confirms-illegality-of-deforestation-in-farms-owned-by-politically-connected-businessman/.

38  “Argentina: Country Environmental Analysis,” World Bank Group, May 2016, http://documentos.bancomundial.org/curated/es/218361479799045279/pdf/109527-ENGLISH-PUBLIC-ARG-CEA-Country-Environmental-Analysis-English.pdf.   

39 Kelland, Kate. “In glyphosate review, WHO cancer agency edited out ‘non-carcinogenic’ findings,” Reuters, October 2017, https://www.reuters.com/investigates/special-report/who-iarc-glyphosate/. ; Cressey, Daniel. “Widely Used Herbicide Linked to Cancer,” Scientific American, March 2015, https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/widely-used-herbicide-linked-to-cancer/.

40 “Macrons says glyphosate to be banned in France within three years,” Reuters, November 2017,  https://www.reuters.com/article/us-eu-health-glyphosate-macron/macron-says-glyphosate-to-be-banned-in-france-within-three-years-idUSKBN1DR259.

41 Kalverkamp, Michael Álvarez et al. “Meat Atlas: Facts and figures about the animals we eat,” Heinrich Böll Stiftung, January 2014, https://www.boell.de/sites/default/files/meat_atlas2014_kommentierbar.pdf.

42 Ueker, Marly Elaine et al. “Parenteral exposure to pesticides and occurrence of congenital malformations: hospital-based case-control stody,” BMC Pediatrics, Vol. 16(125), August 2016, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4983026/. ;  Ruderman, L et al. “Análisis de la Salud Colectiva Ambiental de Malvinas Argentina-Córdoba Una investigación socio- ambiental y sanitaria a través de técnicas cualitativas y relevamiento epidemiológico cuantitativo,” Reduas, August 2012, http://www.reduas.com.ar/wp-content/uploads/downloads/2013/02/Informe-Malvinas-corregido1.pdf.

43 This interview was conducted in the indigenous language Guarani and was later translated into English. 

44 This interview was conducted in the indigenous language Guarani, and was later translated into English.

45 “Ley Nº 904/81,” Estuato do las Comunidades Indíegenas, n.d.  http://www.tierraviva.org.py/wp-content/uploads/2013/11/PDF.pdf.

46 Paraguayan Law no. 904/81, article 17.

47 Tyrrell, Kelly April. “Study shows Brazil’s Soy Moratorium still needed to preserve the Amazon,” University of Wisconsin-Madison, January 2015,  https://news.wisc.edu/study-shows-brazils-soy-moratorium-still-needed-to-preserve-amazon/.

48  “Companies pledging to tackle soy and cattle driven deforestation in Brazil’s Cerrado nearly triples in just three months,” Tropical Forest Alliance 2020, January 2018, https://www.tfa2020.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/01/Press-release-marking-the-significant-increase-in-company-signatories-to-the-Cerrado-Manifesto-Statement-of-Support-25-Jan-2018.pdf

49 “South America exporting Soybeans to Europe, in 2016 by weight,” Chatham House: The Royal Institute of International Affairs, 2016,  https://resourcetrade.earth/data?year=2016 &exporter=sac&importer=eur&category=87&units=weight 

50 “Glyphosate,” European Commission, n.d. https://ec.europa.eu/food/plant/pesticides/glyphosate_en; https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/widely-used-herbicide-linked-to-cancer/. ; Kelland, Kate. “In glyphosate review, WHO cancer agency edited out ‘non-carcinogenic’ findings,” Reuters, October 2017,  https://www.reuters.com/investigates/special-report/who-iarc-glyphosate/.   

51 Pritchard, Janet. “Developing EU measures to address forest-risk commodities: What can be learned from EU regulation of other sectors?,” Fern, November 2016, http://www.fern.org/sites/fern.org/files/Developing %20EU%20measures_0.pdf.

52 “Agriculture and deforestation,” Fern, April 2017, http://www.fern.org/capreform.

 

 


Biofuel Mandates Are a Bad Idea Whose Time May Be Up

The Wall Street Journal | Mar. 11, 2018 

The political tide may be turning against the corn ethanol mandate. The Renewable Fuel Standard, which forces oil refiners to mix corn-based fuel into gasoline, is one of history’s great policy boondoggles.

Read more


Dems push revised bill to phase out ethanol mandate

E&E Daily | Mar. 9, 2018 

Congressional critics of the federal renewable fuel standard yesterday proposed revised legislation to phase out corn ethanol mandates, adding a new provision encouraging farmers to convert cornfields back to pasture.

Read more


Mighty Earth Champions New Legislation to Reform Broken Biofuel Policy

Washington, DC—Today, Mighty Earth chairman Henry Waxman joined Senator Tom Udall, Representative Peter Welch, and members of the environmental and conservation community to introduce the GREENER Fuels Act.

This bill provides, for the first time, pro-environment solutions to the reform the Renewable Fuels Standard (RFS). This broken policy, once seen as a promising way to promote truly sustainable biofuels and curb climate change, has instead only led to the expansion of first-generation, food-based fuels that are worse for the environment and climate than oil and gas.

The new bill, the GREENER Fuels Act, refocuses the law to promote the best biofuels and reduce support for the most polluting.

Statement of former Congressman Henry Waxman:

“I applaud Congressman Welch and Senator Udall for their leadership. It’s time to admit that the Renewable Fuel Standard has done more harm than good and start supporting sensible fixes. Like many of my colleagues, I supported the admirable environmental goals of the RFS when we created it ten years ago. Now, it’s clear that the RFS has been a net-negative for the environment. Not only has the RFS failed to spur significant development of truly advanced fuels, but conventional biofuels like corn ethanol and soy biodiesel are destroying wildlife habitat at home and abroad, polluting waterways, and increasing global warming pollution.”


Democrats call ethanol mandate an environmental 'flop'

Washington Examiner | Mar. 8, 2018 

“We made a mistake,” said Henry Waxman of California, the former Democratic chairman of the House Energy and Commerce Committee, who drove the passage of the Renewable Fuel Standard, or RFS, in a comprehensive energy bill passed in 2007.

Read more


Korindo Group Still Destroying Pristine Rainforest in Papua

While the Korindo Group has enacted a temporary moratorium on new deforestation on its oil palm plantations, it has been quietly but steadily destroying areas of pristine rainforest in one of its logging concessions in Papua, PT Inocin Abadi (PT IA).

Recent satellite imagery shown below reveals that in 2017, Korindo constructed a major network of logging roads and conducted intensive logging within this 100,000 hectare concession, degrading an area of over 3,000 hectares of pristine rainforest. Satellite imagery from November 2017 to January 2018 shows that Korindo has started extending a major logging access road further into a new frontier of pristine forest and has started logging in the vicinity of this road. This indicates that Korindo plans to continue expanding its logging operations deeper into areas of pristine rainforest.

Korindo’s logging concession sits right on top of a pristine rainforest. In 2016, over 93% of this logging concession was covered with 80% canopy cover forest. Over half the concession was mapped as part of an Intact Forest Landscape in 2013. In total, Korindo has already built logging roads over an area of approximately 15,000 hectares of rainforest since it started developing the concession in 2014. In addition, PT IA is located adjacent to one of Korindo’s oil palm concessions, PT Papua Agro Lestari, where it has already cleared over 4,800 hectares of pristine rainforest that is part of the same Intact Forest Landscape.

In response to Mighty Earth’s campaign, Korindo is trying to convince its customers and the marketplace that it is operating sustainably without destroying more rainforest. These images prove this to be untrue.

Despite a revamped public relations effort, Korindo has failed to take meaningful action to stop rainforest clearance across its operations. It has refused to announce and implement a comprehensive Group-wide No Deforestation, No Peat, and No Exploitation policy, aligned with the High Carbon Stock Approach methodology, that applies to both its oil palm and logging operations. And it has refused to restore forests and ecosystems it has destroyed or resolve its grievances with local communities. No matter how much green it puts on its website, Korindo remains a high-risk supplier of both palm oil and wood products.

Location and concession boundary of PT Inocin Abadi, as well as other Korindo Group logging concessions (in red) and oil palm concessions (in orange).[1]
Sentinel image of the northeast section of PT IA from December 4, 2016. The area outlined in yellow has not yet been developed. See an interactive version of this map here.

 

Sentinel image of the northeast section of PT IA from December 24, 2017. The area outlined in yellow, covering over 3,000 hectares, is now fully marked up by new logging roads. See an interactive version of this map here.

 

Close up of the 2017 logging area outlined in yellow, using Planet Labs [2] satellite imagery from December 24, 2017.
'Planet Labs'[3] satellite image from 28 January 2017, which indicates that Korindo is continuing to extend a main logging road further into a new area of rainforest, and has started logging in the vicinity of this road.
Heavy machinery and logs block access to Korindo's PT Inocin Abadi logging concession. @MightyEarth, June 2016

 

Sign post for PT Inocin Abadi. @MightyEarth, June 2016

Caption for featured photo: Trucks carrying logs from Korindo's PT Inocin Abadi logging concession. @MightyEarth, June 2016.

 

Sources: 

[1] The source of the boundary of PT Inocin Abadi is the Indonesian Ministry of Forestry, 30 September 2014. http://appgis.dephut.go.id/appgis/Arahan_pemanfaatan_2014/Papua.pdf. See also: http://webgis.dephut.go.id:8080/kemenhut/index.php/en/map/interactive-map-2

[2] https://www.planet.com/

[3] ibid


Activists in South Korea Rally Against Indonesian Rainforest Destruction by Korean Conglomerate POSCO Daewoo

Mighty Earth joined with The Korea Federation for Environmental Movements (KFEM), Korea’s largest environmental NGO, at a rally in Gwanghwamun North Square in Seoul, South Korea on Monday, July 31st, to demand that the Korean conglomerate POSCO Daewoo stop destroying Indonesian rainforest on its palm oil plantation in Papua.

Over a dozen activists participated in a street performance, in which they linked arms to defend the forest against a masked man holding a chainsaw representing POSCO Daewoo.  The activists held a banner that read, in both Korean and English, “POSCO Daewoo, Stop Destroying Indonesian Rainforest,” against a giant backdrop of palm oil-driven deforestation in Papua, Indonesia taken from Mighty Earth’s field investigation into Korindo and POSCO Daewoo in June 2016.

The rally followed a meeting between Mighty, KFEM and representatives from POSCO Daewoo that took place the previous business day.  At the meeting, Mighty and KFEM asked POSCO Daewoo to immediately stop their deforestation of pristine rainforest. POSCO Daewoo failed to make any specific commitments and instead said it needed to “study” the matter further despite several years of stakeholders urging an end to its deforestation.  

“POSCO Daewoo is trying to buy itself time to finish its forest clearing,” said Deborah Lapidus, Campaign Director at Mighty Earth.  “At the rate they are clearing, there will be no forest left by the time the company is done studying--and that’s surely their strategy.” Already, POSCO Daewoo’s bulldozers have cleared over 26,500 hectares of forest–half the size of Seoul, South Korea–in its 34,195 hectare concession.  What’s more, the pace of clearing has been accelerating; the company cleared 2,400 ha in the first four months of this year alone and over 10,000 ha since September 2015. Unconscionably, the international consulting firm PWC has given POSCO Daewoo’s deforestation a green stamp of approval. 

The land POSCO Daewoo is clearing to make way for its palm oil plantation, called PT Bio Inti Agrindo (PT BIA), is home to indigenous communities, as well as threatened and endangered species including tree kangaroos and birds of paradise.  According to BIA’s original business plans, obtained by Mighty, the entire area was covered by virgin rainforests prior to clearing.  The company estimated that it would make US$162 million just from selling the high value timber it cleared in the process of setting up the plantation.  The ancient rainforests being bulldozed by POSCO Daewoo are also incredibly carbon rich and essential to curbing global climate change.   

“Unfortunately, two Korean companies have established sprawling palm oil operations in Papua and are clearing forests at a vast scale,” said Ms. Lapidus to an assembled crowd of newspaper photographers and participants at Monday’s rally. “You might recall when we were here last year to expose Korindo’s forest destruction.  Right next to Korindo’s plantations is an immense zone of destruction that is owned by POSCO Daewoo, one of Korea’s premier companies. Despite the enormous ecological value of these areas, POSCO decided that it was happy to destroy them to create a giant monoculture plantation.  We are not seeing many companies act in such an egregious manner anymore but POSCO’s bulldozers are still operating.”  

Rally participants called on POSCO Daewoo to declare an immediate moratorium on all new forest clearing, to commit to a No Deforestation and No Exploitation policy aligned with the industry standard High Carbon Stock Approach, and to invest in restoration to repair its past damage.  

“POSCO Daewoo has done an incredible amount of damage in a short amount of time. It is undermining other companies’ progress on forest conservation and damaging its own brand and reputation around the world across its diverse businesses,” commented Glenn Hurowitz, Mighty Earth’s CEO, at the rally.  “All this deforestation is bad for its business.”

Just as POSCO Daewoo’s mill has become operational in the first quarter of 2017, the world’s largest palm oil buyers have stated they will exclude POSCO Daewoo and BIA’s palm oil from their supply chains because it violates their own No Deforestation and No Exploitation commitments.  

Investors are also pulling away from POSCO Daewoo over its deforestation.  The Norwegian Pension Fund, the world’s largest sovereign wealth fund, with more than $1 trillion in assets, commissioned an in-depth study into POSCO Daewoo’s activities, and found that the company’s practices were so egregious that they withdrew their investments in August 2015.  Hermes Investment has encouraged POSCO Daewoo to work with stakeholders to rapidly address this issue.  And POSCO Daewoo risks losing financing from several of its financial backers, including HSBC and BNP Paribas, which have both have announced No Deforestation financing policies.

Speaking at the rally, Choony Kim, Vice Executive Director of KFEM said, "Almost 7,700 hectares of tropical forests still remain on the site of POSCO Daewoo. In order for POSCO Daewoo to clean past mistakes and to compete fairly in the global market, it is necessary to immediately declare a moratorium on new land development in the remaining tropical forests. Also, efforts should be made to restore damaged forests and ecosystems.”


Et si votre chocolat de la Saint-Valentin avait été gâché par la déforestation?

Et si votre chocolat de la Saint-Valentin avait été gâché par la déforestation?

La destruction des forêts liée à l’exploitation du cacao en Côte d’Ivoire et au Ghana a été bien documentée, notamment par le récent rapport de Mighty Earth, « La déforestation amère du chocolat ». Aujourd’hui, une nouvelle étude démontre que la culture du cacao provoque des déforestations dans d’autres régions du monde, de l’Asie à l’Amazonie. Mighty Earth a cartographié des régions productrices de cacao situées en dehors de l’Afrique de l’Ouest et a pu identifier plusieurs zones qui présentaient des risques élevés de déforestation.

Grâce à des images satellites détaillées et en superposant des cartes documentant la déforestation sur celles des régions productrices de cacao, nous avons pu constater des déboisements massifs en Indonésie, au Cameroun, au Pérou et en Équateur.

Cette carte de la Saint-Valentin nécessite donc une enquête plus approfondie sur les sociétés en cause, et des recherches pour déterminer la part de responsabilité imputable au cacao plutôt qu’à d’autres matières premières. Néanmoins, il est évident que le secteur du chocolat étend désormais son empire à des pays comme l’Indonésie, le Pérou, l’Équateur ou le Cameroun qui tous possèdent de vastes forêts tropicales. Avec une demande à la hausse, le secteur du chocolat risque de se déployer de manière agressive dans les zones tropicales du monde entier et d’exporter dans bien des endroits les mêmes mauvaises pratiques qui ont contribué à la destruction quasi totale des forêts d’Afrique de l’Ouest. Ce qui est arrivé en Côte d’Ivoire et au Ghana doit servir d’avertissement pour les autres pays où se développe la cacaoculture, si le secteur ne rectifie pas le tir en modifiant ses pratiques.

À la suite de notre rapport publié à l’automne 2017, 24 chocolatiers de premier plan se sont engagés auprès des gouvernements du Ghana et de la Côte d’Ivoire à ne plus provoquer de nouvelles déforestations et à reboiser les forêts d’Afrique de l’Ouest. Ils ont également promis une traçabilité du cacao produit dans ces pays. Ces entreprises et les gouvernements ont fort à faire pour tenir leurs promesses. Mais seules quelques sociétés se sont engagées à mettre un terme à la déforestation dans le monde. Il est grand temps pour le reste du secteur du chocolat de suivre l’exemple.

Les sociétés Olam International et Hershey’s ont promis un cacao « zéro déforestation » dans le monde entier, avec effet immédiat, et se sont déclarées en faveur de l’agroforesterie. Quelques autres se sont engagées à changer sous peu leurs pratiques : Barry Callebaut s’est fixé un objectif « zéro déforestation » pour 2025 et Godiva a promis d’appliquer bientôt une politique « zéro déforestation » à l’ensemble de ses matières premières, dont le cacao. D’autres encore comme Mondelēz se sont engagées à un cacao sans déforestation en Afrique de l’Ouest et au-delà, mais pas dans tous les pays. Les sociétés qui luttent pour mettre un terme à la déforestation et pour reboiser ces régions du monde créent un précédent pour le secteur. En devançant les recommandations du Cocoa & Forests Initiative, elles envoient pour la Saint-Valentin un message d’espoir aux animaux menacés, de l’Asie à l’Amazonie.

  • Hershey’s : Nous sommes fiers d’annoncer que nous nous engageons à consolider notre chaîne d’approvisionnement pour le cacao, afin de ne plus générer de nouvelle déforestation. Nous cesserons immédiatement de nous approvisionner dans les régions où de nouvelles déforestations auront été constatées. Par ailleurs, nous avons créé un programme d’agroforesterie qui soutient le cacao cultivé sous couvert forestier et comprend des plantations d’arbres. 
  • Barry Callebaut : Avec son plan Forever Chocolate pour le développement durable, Barry Callebaut s’est engagé à devenir d’ici 2025 « positif en forêt » et « positif en carbone », en s’approvisionnant de manière durable et sans déforestation pour l’ensemble de ses ingrédients. 
  • Godiva : Dans le cadre de son engagement général pour l’amélioration de la vie des communautés et de celle de la planète, Godiva procède à une mise à jour de son code de conduite mondial, de manière à garantir que ses fournisseurs en matières premières — y compris en cacao — s’inscrivent dans des programmes d’approvisionnement luttant contre la déforestation et la dégradation des forêts. 
  • Olam International : Olam Cacao s’est engagée à mettre fin à la déforestation dans sa chaîne d’approvisionnement, au niveau mondial. Cette initiative comprend des formations auprès des agriculteurs afin que ces derniers adoptent des pratiques plus judicieuses du point de vue du climat. La plantation d’arbres d’ombrages en fait également partie. En Côte d’Ivoire, Olam a relevé le niveau de ses exigences pour les agriculteurs en matière de plantation d’arbres — en recommandant 100 arbres «forestry » et 50 arbres d’ombrage par hectare. Pour son approvisionnement direct, Olam s’est fixé pour objectif une traçabilité et une durabilité de 100 % de ses volumes d’ici 2020.
  • Mondelēz : Depuis 2012, nous avons pour ambition de nous approvisionner entièrement en cacao durable, principalement par le biais du programme Cocoa Life. Ce programme, qui opère dans six pays, dont l’Indonésie, met l’accent sur l’environnement et exige un cacao « zéro déforestation ». Nous soutenons aussi des campagnes de formation sur l’environnement et la conservation forestière dans tous les lieux où nous nous approvisionnons en cacao et encourageons les cultures de cacao sous couvert forestier, les cultures intercalaires et l’agroforesterie. Nous avons par ailleurs déjà mis au point un niveau de référence pour surveiller la déforestation en Indonésie. 
  • Halba: pour l’instant, Halba ne possède pas de politique « zéro déforestation », mais y travaille ; la société s’est déjà engagée à compenser toutes les émissions de CO2 de sa chaîne d’approvisionnement grâce à un projet d’agroforesterie et de reboisement au Honduras ; à ce jour, Halba a planté plus de 350 000 arbres au Honduras, au Pérou et au Ghana et s’est engagée dans des pratiques d’agroforesterie dans tous les pays où la société s’approvisionne en cacao, avec un objectif de 70 arbres d’ombrage par hectare.
  • Nestlé :  Nestlé est signataire de la « Cocoa & Forests Initiative » et mène également sur le long terme une politique générale « zéro déforestation » pour ses principales matières premières, y compris le cacao. 
  • Unilever: Afin de mettre un terme à la déforestation liée au cacao, nous nous engageons à nous approvisionner exclusivement en cacao durable, au niveau mondial, toutes zones confondues. De même, notre engagement en matière de lutte contre la déforestation concerne toutes nos matières premières. 

Il est grand temps que l’ensemble du secteur assainisse ses pratiques et adopte rapidement des politiques « zéro déforestation » solides et mondiales pour le cacao. Nous pensons particulièrement aux sociétés dont l’implication dans des chaînes illégales d’approvisionnement de cacao de déforestation (le cacao étant parfois cultivé à l’intérieur de parcs nationaux) avait été identifiée par Mighty Earth dans son dernier rapport.

Nous demandons donc au secteur du chocolat d’agir comme il se doit et d’envoyer pour la Saint-Valentin un message d’espoir aux paresseux du Pérou, aux jaguars d’Équateur et aux Anoas d’Indonésie en sauvant les forêts dans lesquelles ils vivent.

Célèbes : Partie d’une région productrice de cacao en Indonésie, avant et après déforestation

Avant, 2000

Après, 2016

Partie d’une région productrice de cacao au Pérou, avant et après déforestation 

Avant, 2000

Après, 2016

Partie d’une région productrice de cacao en Équateur, avant et après déforestation

Avant, 2000

Après, 2016

Partie d’une région productrice de cacao au Cameroun, avant et après déforestation 

Avant, 2000
Après, 2016

Notes sur la déforestation liée à la production de cacao, au-delà de l’Afrique de l’Ouest :

Au niveau mondial : Au niveau mondial, le déboisement provoqué par la production de cacao, de 1988 à 2008, est estimé approximativement à 2-3 millions d’hectares. Ceci équivaut à 1 % environ de l’ensemble du déboisement. [i] Entre 1990 et 2008, le cacao représentait 8 % de la déforestation importée par les 27 États membres de l’UE. [ii] En se déployant, la culture du cacao menace de nouvelles forêts. « De 2000 à 2014, la production mondiale de fèves de cacao a augmenté de 32 %, passant de 3,4 à 4,5 millions de tonnes — alors que l’empreinte écologique causée par l’utilisation des terres pour les plantations de cacao a bondi à 37 % — passant de 7,6 à 10,4 millions d’hectares. »[iii] Depuis 2007, la cacaoculture s’étend à des pays comme la Papouasie Nouvelle-Guinée, la Malaisie, la République dominicaine, le Libéria, l’Ouganda, la Colombie et la République de Sierra Leone. Elle est susceptible de fragiliser des forêts déjà vulnérables.

Indonésie : L’Indonésie est connue pour sa déforestation liée à l’exploitation de l’huile de palme, du bois et du papier. Mais la cacaoculture s’y est également développée. Le pays se hisse aujourd’hui au rang de 3e producteur mondial de cacao. Entre 1988 et 2007, près de 0,7 million d’hectares de forêts ont été défrichés en Indonésie pour la production de cacao, ce qui équivaut à près de 9 % de la déforestation nationale liée à l’agriculture. [iv] La déforestation mise en évidence par nos cartes ci-dessus se situe dans « l’île du cacao », les Célèbes, où la plupart des 850 000 tonnes annuelles [v] sont produites. En 2017, près de 63 % de la production indonésienne de cacao se concentrait dans l’île des Célèbes. Ses principales régions productrices sont le Sulawesi occidental (18 % de la production indonésienne), le Sulawesi du Sud-Est (17 %) et le Sulawesi du Sud (16 %). [vi] Un expert a rapporté à Mighty Earth qu’à l’exception des plaines alluviales au nord de Mamuju (sur la côte ouest, face à Bornéo) qui ont été partiellement déboisées au milieu des années 1990 par les producteurs d’huile de palme, presque toute la déforestation des Célèbes a pour origine le cacao. Cette déforestation est particulièrement sensible dans les collines (en général, à partir de 20 km de la côte). [vii]

Cameroun : Le cacao devient aussi un facteur de déforestation dans le bassin du Congo, là où se trouvent les plus grandes forêts tropicales intactes au monde. Les statistiques de l’ITC sur les exportations de fèves de cacao indiquent que les exportations du Cameroun sont passées de 131 075 tonnes en 2007 à 263 746 tonnes en 2016. Ces chiffres laissent supposer que le nombre de cacaoyers a doublé (sachant que les récoltes commencent 3 à 5 ans après la plantation), et que certains d’entre eux ont probablement été plantés sur des forêts. En 2012, le gouvernement du Cameroun a annoncé son intention d’intensifier la production de cacao pour la propulser à 600 000 tonnes annuelles d’ici 2020 (contre 225 000 tonnes actuellement). Cette initiative menacerait davantage de forêts, bien que d’après le directeur général de la Société de développement du cacao au Cameroun, ces projets d’expansion de la cacaoculture tournent court. [viii] Déjà en 2014, près de 11 % de l’empreinte écologique des récoltes du Cameroun correspondaient à la production de cacao. La déforestation mise en évidence par nos cartes ci-dessus se situe dans le département de Manyu, dans la région du sud-ouest du Cameroun. Manyu et Meme sont les deux départements du Cameroun où se concentre la production de cacao. [ix] La région du Sud-Ouest produirait à elle seule près de la moitié du cacao du Cameroun. [x] Mamfé est la capitale du cacao du département de Manyu. Depuis novembre 2016, de violents affrontements opposent les séparatistes aux forces de l’ordre. Ces affrontements ont coupé de nombreux acheteurs camerounais des circuits traditionnels de vente. Du cacao serait depuis exporté illégalement vers le Nigeria. [xi] Chez son voisin le Nigeria, on estime que le cacao a contribué, de 1990 à 2008, à 8 % de la déforestation nationale. [xii]

Amazonie péruvienne : Les producteurs de cacao se sont aussi tournés vers l’Amérique du Sud, en particulier vers le Pérou. Les statistiques de l’ITC sur les exportations de fèves de cacao indiquent que les exportations ont progressé, passant de 4 263 tonnes en 2007 à 61 888 tonnes en 2016. La production de cacao aurait été multipliée par 15. Des images satellites de 2012 ont surpris United Cacao en train de détruire près de 2000 hectares de terres pour les convertir en plantation de cacao, mordant sur la forêt amazonienne du Pérou, riche en biodiversité et en carbone. Les plantations de cacao au Pérou ont dû atteindre les 129 842 hectares en 2016. [xiii] La déforestation mise en évidence par nos cartes ci-dessus s’est produite principalement dans les régions d’Ucayali, de Huanuco et de San Martin.

Équateur : Les statistiques de l’ITC sur les exportations de fèves de cacao indiquent que les exportations de l’Équateur ont presque triplé, passant de 80 093 tonnes en 2007 à 227 214 tonnes en 2016. Les zones de cacaoculture ont progressé de 16 600 hectares, entre 2000 et 2008, dans les provinces de Sucumbíos et de Napo. Avec les cultures de plantes fourragères, de cacao et d’huile de palme, le secteur agricole est le principal responsable de la déforestation en Équateur. [xiv] On estime que le cacao est cultivé sur 16 100 hectares dans la province de Sucumbíos et sur 13 500 hectares dans la province d’Orellana. [xv] La déforestation mise en évidence par nos cartes ci-dessus se situe dans les provinces d’Orellana et de Sucumbíos.


Forêt détruite par la culture du cacao © Mighty Earth 2017

Sacs de fèves prêts à être expédiés © Mighty Earth 2017

Jaguar en Équateur © 123RF

Anoa d’Indonésie © 123RF

Paresseux du Pérou © 123RF


Sources:
[i] Kroeger, A. et al. (2017) Eliminating Deforestation from the Cocoa Supply Chain. World Bank Group, March 2017.
[ii] http://ec.europa.eu/environment/forests/pdf/1.%20Report%20analysis%20of%20impact.pdf
[iii] https://resourcetrade.earth/stories/cocoa-trade-climate-change-and-deforestation#section-171
[iv] FAOSTAT and European Commission. The impact of EU consumption on deforestation: Comprehensive analysis of the impact EU consumption on deforestation. 2013. Technical Report 063.
[v] https://www.rikolto.org/en/project/cocoa-sulawesi-indonesia
[vi] Indonesian Ministry of Agriculture, Directorate General of Estate Crops, Tree Crop Estate Statistics of Indonesia, 2015-2017 cocoa, http://bit.ly/2FUaEBO
[vii] Email exchange with Francois Ruf, February 2018.
[viii] Thomson Reuters Foundation, Extreme weather threatens Cameroon’s hopes of becoming a cocoa giant, 7 June 2017, http://tmsnrt.rs/2nhEXvn.
[ix] International Cocoa Organization (ICCO), Cameroon, http://bit.ly/2EJoYxz.
[x] Reuters, Unrest in Cameroon fuels cocoa smuggling to Nigeria, 16 January 2018, http://reut.rs/2BcYlBk.
[xi]Business in Cameroon, Cameroon’s cocoa production taken over by Nigeria, 29 July 2017, http://bit.ly/2sgGOFE.
Reuters, Unrest in Cameroon fuels cocoa smuggling to Nigeria, 16 January 2018, http://reut.rs/2BcYlBk.
[xii] www.ec.europa.eu/environment/forests/pdf/1.%20Report%20analysis%20of%20impact.pdf
[xiv] Satellite images in 2012 showed United Cacao destroying nearly 5000 acres of land for a cocoa plantation, encroaching on the carbon-rich, biodiverse Amazon rainforest in Peru: http://www.wri.org/blog/2015/06/zooming-%E2%80%9Csustainable%E2%80%9D-cocoa-producer-destroys-pristine-forest-peru.
See also: https://news.mongabay.com/2015/01/company-chops-down-rainforest-to-produce-sustainable-chocolate/ and http://maaproject.org/2015/image-9-cacao-tamshiyacu/  for how Matt Finer of the Amazon Conservation Association used Landsat imagery to chronicle the clearing month-by-month and prove that the area was previously primary forest. Meanwhile, Greg Asner of Stanford University’s Carnegie Institution for Science used airborne LiDAR technology to estimate that the patch of forest contained an average of 122 metric tons of carbon per hectare (54.4 tons per acre).” (WRI: http://www.wri.org/blog/2015/08/how-much-rainforest-chocolate-bar and https://cao.carnegiescience.edu/ ).
[xv] UNDP and Ecuadorian Ministry of the Environment (MAE), Sustainable Development of the Ecuadorian Amazon: integrated management of multiple use landscapes and high value conservation forests, March 2015, http://bit.ly/2mE6Sp2.
[xvi] Revista Nera, Oswaldo Viteri Salazar and Jesús Ramos-Martín, Organizational structure and commercialization of coffee and cocoa in the northern amazon region of Ecuador, January-April 2017, http://bit.ly/2Dd4Wyb

ITC Trade in Cocoa Beans, 2007-2016


Palm Oil: Report 3

Mighty Earth Rapid Response Report 3

See PDF Here

PT Rimbun Sawit Papua, PT Sawit Mandiri Lestari, PT Agriprima Cipta Persada, PT Agrinusa Persada Mulia, PT Permata Putera Mandiri (Blok I), PT Citra Palma Pertiwi 2, PT Borneo Citra Palma Abadi

 

February 2018

Prepared with support from Aidenvironment and MapHubs

PT Rimbun Sawit Papua



 

Concession Information: PT Rimbun Sawit Papua (PT RSP) is located in West Papua province. It covers an area of 30,596 hectares. (Long 133° 6’58.80″E, Lat 2°55’32.52″S)

 

Deforestation: 412 hectares of forest alerts detected in October – November 2017. Review of the satellite imagery shows that 1,197 hectares of forest (1,070 ha) and peat forest (127 ha) were cleared in 2017.

 

 

 

 

 

Alert Overview: 

 

Alert Imagery: 

Note: Green Line = Forest, Brown Line = Peat.

 

Ownership Information: 

PT Rimbun Sawit Papua is ultimately owned by Jeff Setiawan (direct shares), Ir. Daud (through PT Palmandiri Plantation), Junus Sutiono and Watson Dharma. Mr. Junus Sutiono and Mr. Watson Dharma own PT RSP through PT Mulia Abadi Lestari, one of the shareholding companies of PT Duta Rendra Mulya, a Salim owned plantation company.

 

Supply Chain Information: Not available

PT Sawit Mandiri Lestari



 

 

Concession Information: PT Sawit Mandiri Lestari (PT SML) is located in Central Kalimantan province. It covers an area of 27,056 hectares. (Long 111°12’25.40″E, Lat 1°53’51.50″S)

 

 

Deforestation: We detected 1,348 hectares of forest alerts in October of 2017. After inspecting the imagery, we found an area of 5,600 hectares cleared beginning in March 2016 and continuing through December 2017.

 

 

 

 

Alert Overview: 

 

Ownership Information: 

PT Sawit Mandiri Lestri was sold by Sawit Sumbermas Sarana (SSMS) in December 2015 while there was a RSPO complaint pending inititated by the NGOs Environmental Investigation Agency and JPIK Kalteng. The company is, therefore, no longer subject to the RSPO’s Principles and Criteria. PT SML is 60% owned by Rinawati and 40% owned by Hamidi Mukhdar Said, through PT Metro Jaya Lestari.

No information could be found concerning Rinawati but Hamidi Mukhdar Said is a member of Commission IV of the house of representatives of Indonesia. The director mentioned in PT SML’s notary act is also the commercial director of SSMS (Ramzi Sastra) and the address of PT SML is the same as the address of another plantation company belonging to SSMS. This concession still appears to be connected to the Abdul Rasyid family.

Supply Chain Information: Not available

PT Agriprima Cipta Persada



 

 

Concession Information: PT Agriprima Cipta Persada (PT ACP) is located in Papua province. It covers an area of 59,796 hectares. (Long 140°32’15.31″E, Lat 7°26’12.59″S)

 

Deforestation: 2,847 hectares cleared in 2015 and 2016. Alerts detected in 2017 appear to be residual alerts (due to cloudy satellite imagery) and not early 2017 clearance. However, we see evidence of a new road cut in November – December 2017 and clearance of 70 hectares in November 2017 – January 2018.

 

 

 

Alert Overview: 

 

Alert Imagery: 

 

Ownership Information: 

PT ACP is owned in part by GAMA Group.

 

Supply Chain Information: 

The main known buyers of GAMA Group are Wilmar, GAR, IOI, Olam, ADM and Cargill (based on information available on companies’ sustainability dashboards).

PT Agrinusa Persada Mulia 


Concession Information: PT Agrinusa Persada Mulia (PT APM) is located in Papua province. It covers an area of 29,423 hectares. (Long 140°42’31.45″E, Lat 7°25’35.32″S)

 

Deforestation: We found 2,361 hectares of clearance between May and November 2017.

 

 

 

 

Alert Overview: 

 

Alert Imagery: 

 

Ownership Information: 

PT APM is owned in part by GAMA Group.

 

Supply Chain Information: 

The main known buyers of GAMA Group are Wilmar, GAR, IOI, Olam, ADM and Cargill (based on information available on companies’ sustainability dashboards).

PT Permata Putera Mandiri (Blok I)



 

Concession Information: PT Permata Putera Mandiri Blok I (PT PPM) is located in West Papua province. It covers an area of 34,147 hectares. (Long 132°21’3.44″E, Lat 1°53’19.68″S)

 

 

Deforestation: We found 668 hectares of clearance between June 2017 and December 2017.

 

 

 

 

Alert Overview: 

 

Alert Imagery: 

 

Ownership Information: 

Austindo Nusantara Jaya Agri

PT PPM is owned by Austindo Nusantara Jaya Agri. The group was suspended in 2015 by its buyers with integrated sustainability policies over non compliant deforestation activities in PT PPM. The company stopped clearance activities on the ground for two years. Deforestation started again in late 2017.

(Shares in ANJ Tbk and not ANJ Agri)

 

Supply Chain Information: 

As of Q3 in 2017, the main customers of Austindo Nusantara Jaya are Felda Iffco (FGV and Tabung Haji’s PT Synergy Oil Nusantara Refinery located in Batam, Indonesia), Gokul Agro Resources (an Indian processor and manufacturer of edible and non edible oils) and Kuala Lumpur Kepong Berhad (through its PT Adei Plantation and Industry in Riau).

PT Citra Palma Pertiwi 2



 

Concession Information: PT Citra Palma Pertiwi 2 (PT CPP2) is located in East Kalimantan province. It covers an area of approximately 7,584 hectares. (Long 115°55’32.78″E, Lat 0°57’3.38″S)

 

Deforestation: CPP2 is owned by the same company as PT Borneo Citra Palma Abadi (PT BCPA), featured below. Both CPP2 and BCPA have cleared significant amounts of forest within the past year. In CPP2, there is evidence of cutting roads with the likely intention of further clearance. In BCPA, there is thinning clearance in the southeast section of the concession. In the combined analysis we found a total of 593 hectares of clearance in 2017 in BCPA and CPP2.

 

 

 

 

Alert Overview: 

 

Alert Imagery: 

 

Ownership Information: 

Both PT CPP2 and BCPA belong to PT Bangka Bumi Lestari, ultimately owned by Mr. Sulaidy (99.9% shares). Mr Sulaidy used to be a shareholder of Surya Dumai Industri Tbk until 2014 and seems to be related to Mr. Martias Fangiono (owner of Surya Dumai).

 

Supply Chain Information: 

The nearest mill is PT Ketapang Agro Lestari, owned by First Resources. First Resources has stated that it does not accept supplies from BBL, so we do not know where BBL’s supplies are being sold. (The plantation is very young, so it may not yet have reached production yet).

PT Borneo Citra Palma Abadi



 

Concession Information: PT Borneo Citra Palma Abadi (PT BCPA) is located in East Kalimantan province. It covers an area of 3,630 hectares. (Long 115°50’59.84″E, Lat 0°54’10.86″S)

 

 

 

Deforestation: Both BCPA and CPP2 have cleared significant amounts of forest within the past year. In CPP2, there is evidence of cutting roads with the likely intention of further clearance. In BCPA, there is thinning clearance in the southeast section of the concession. In the combined analysis we found a total of 593 hectares of clearance in 2017 in BCPA and CPP2.

 

 

 

Alert Overview: 

 

Alert Imagery:

 

Ownership Information: 

Both PT CPP2 and BCPA belong to PT Bangka Bumi Lestari, ultimately owned by Mr. Sulaidy (99.9% shares). Mr Sulaidy used to be a shareholder of Surya Dumai Industri Tbk until 2014 and seems to be related to Mr. Martias Fangiono (owner of Surya Dumai).

 

Supply Chain Information: 

The nearest mill is PT Ketapang Agro Lestari, owned by First Resources. First Resources has stated that it does not accept supplies from BBL, so we do not know where BBL’s supplies are being sold. (The plantation is very young, so it may not yet have reached production yet).


Tu cacao, besado por la deforestación

Tu cacao, besado por la deforestación

La destrucción de los bosques a causa del cacao en Costa de Marfil y Ghana han sido muy bien documentadas, incluyendo el informe más reciente de Mighty Earth, “El secreto más oscuro del chocolate”. Actualmente, nuevas investigaciones revelan que el cacao está impulsando la deforestación en otras regiones del mundo, desde Asia hasta el Amazonas.

Mighty Earth tomo a su cargo la zonificación de las regiones productoras de cacao en cuatro países fuera de África occidental y descubrió un alto riesgo de deforestación en varias zonas productoras de cacao.

Mediante detallado mapeo satelital y superposición de mapas sobre la deforestación en las regiones productoras de cacao hemos encontrado deforestación a gran escala en regiones productoras de Indonesia, Camerún, Perú y Ecuador.

Este día de San Valentín el mapeo del cacao amerita una investigación más detallada de las empresas impulsoras de la deforestación a nivel mundial que indague cuanto de esa deforestación se atribuye al cacao en relación a otros “commodities” Lo que sin embargo está muy claro es que la industria del chocolate, actualmente se está expandiendo a países como Indonesia, Perú, Ecuador y Camerún que aún se jactan de poseer bosques tropicales. Con la creciente demanda de chocolate está industria está en riesgo de expandirse vertiginosamente hacia naciones alrededor del mundo que cuentan con bosques tropicales y en muchos lugares incluso exportar las mismas malas prácticas que han contribuido a la casi total destrucción de los bosques de África Occidental. Costa de Marfil y Ghana son la moraleja de lo que podría pasar en otros países donde el cultivo de cacao se está expandiendo, si la industria no reforma sus prácticas.

Después de nuestro informe en el otoño de 2O17, 24 empresas líderes de la industria del chocolate se unieron al gobierno de Ghana y de Costa de Marfil en el compromiso de no incurrir en nuevas deforestaciones, reforestar y hacer el seguimiento de la industria en África Occidental.

Estas compañías y los gobiernos tienen mucho por hacer para cumplir sus promesas, solo unas cuantas han realizado un compromiso global de cacao libre de deforestación. Es tiempo que el resto de la industria del chocolate haga lo mismo.

Olam International y Hershey’s se han comprometido al cacao “cero deforestación” a nivel mundial, de vigencia inmediata y a la agroforesteria. Otros pocos se comprometieron a un cambio pronto:  Barry Callebaut apunta a lograr cacao libre de deforestación hasta el año 2025 mientras que Godiva prometió desarrollar pronto una política cruzada – que incluye el cacao. Otros, como Still se han comprometido a obtener Cacao (de varios orígenes) Libre de Deforestación fuera de África Occidental pero aún no a nivel mundial.  Las empresas que luchan para frenar la deforestación a causa del cacao y la repoblación (reverdecimiento) del cacao, están mundialmente sentando un precedente para la industria, yendo más allá la Iniciativa del Cacao y Bosques, enviando San Valentín a la fauna amenazada desde el Asia hasta el Amazonas.

  • Hershey: Nos enorgullece comprometernos a la ‘no deforestación’ en nuestra cadena de suministro evitando abastecernos del cacao de cualquier lugar en el mundo donde hayan sucedido nuevas deforestaciones, esto con efecto inmediato, así como también a la creación de programas de agroforesteria para apoyar el cacao cultivado a la sombra mediante programas de plantación de árboles.
  • Barry Callebaut: Bajo nuestra visión de sustentabilidad ‘Chocolate para Siempre’, Barry Callebaut se ha comprometido a ser Bosque y Carbón Positivo y a abastecernos de ingredientes de manera sostenible, libres de deforestación hasta 2025.
  • Godiva: En el marco de nuestro compromiso de enriquecer a nuestras comunidades y al planeta, Godiva está actualizando nuestro Código de Conducta Global de Abastecimiento para asegurar que los proveedores de los commodities de nuestros ingredientes – incluido el cacao– continúe estableciendo programas de abastecimiento que combatan la deforestación y la degradación de los bosques.
  • Olam International: Olam Cacao está comprometido a detener la deforestación en su cadena global de suministro, la misma que incluye capacitación de agricultores sobre Practicas Climáticas Inteligentes y programas de plantación de árboles de sombra. En Costa de Marfil, Olam escalo en sus recomendaciones a los agricultores sobre plantación de árboles – recomendando 100 arboles de uso forestal y 50 arboles de sombra por hectárea. En su abastecimiento directo, la meta del Cacao de Olam es que 100% de sus volúmenes puedan ser rastreables y sostenibles hasta 2020.
  • Mondelēz: Desde 2012 nuestro objetivo es abastecernos de cacao sostenible, principalmente de Cacao Life que opera en seis países incluyendo Indonesia con un enfoque medioambiental que incluye la no deforestación. Realizamos capacitaciones para la conservación de bosque en todos los lugares donde nos proveemos de cacao y apoyamos el cacao producido bajo sombra, intercultivos y agroforesteria. Estamos ya realizando un estudio de línea base para el seguimiento de la deforestación en Indonesia.
  • Halba: Halba aún no tiene una política para el cacao, pero está trabajando en ello, y la empresa está ya comprometida a compensar todas sus emisiones de CO2 de su cadena de suministros a través de un programa de reforestación y agraforesteria en Honduras; hasta ahora Halba ha plantado más de 350.000 arboles maderables en Honduras, Perú y Ghana y se ha comprometido a la agroforesteria en todos los países donde compra cacao, apuntando a 70 árboles de sombra por hectárea.
  • Nestlé: Nestlé es signataria de la Iniciativa de Cacao y Bosques y témenos una larga trayectoria de políticas de no deforestación para nuestros commodities claves, incluyendo el cacao.
  • Unilever: En términos de compromisos globales para detener la deforestación por el cacao, nuestro compromiso sobre abastecimiento sostenible del 100% de nuestro cacao es orden global y no geográficamente especifico. De manera similar, nuestra posición de eliminar la deforestación de nuestra cadena de suministro es también global no especifica con relación al commodity.

Es hora de que toda la industria sanee sus prácticas e implemente políticas robustas de cero deforestación a nivel mundial – especialmente aquella empresas que Mighty Earth nombrado en nuestro último informe como aquellas que están relacionadas a cadenas de suministro de cacao ilegales que proceden incluso del interior de parques nacionales.

Pedimos a la industria del chocolate hacer lo correcto y enviar San Valentín a los perezosos en el Perú, a los jaguares en Ecuador a los búfalos en Indonesia para salvar sus hogares en los bosques.

Sulawesi: Parte de la región productora de cacao en Indonesia, antes y después de la deforestación

Antes del año 2000

Después de 2016

Parte de la región peruana productora de cacao, antes y después de la deforestación

Antes del 2000

Después del 2016

Parte dela región productora de cacao antes y después de la deforestación

Antes del 2000

Después de 2016

Parte de la región productora de cacao camerunense, antes y después de la deforestación

Antes del 2000
Después del 2016

Notas sobre la deforestación por cacao fuera de África Occidental

Globalmente: la perdida de bosque por la producción de cacao fue aproximadamente de 2-3 millones de hectáreas desde 1988 al 2008, lo que equivale al 1% del total de la perdida de bosque. (i)  El cacao representa el 8% de la deforestación incorporadas en EU27 importaciones netas de productos cultivados, 1990-2008 (ii). El cacao se está esparciendo y al hacerlo, amenaza nuevos bosques. “desde 2000 a 2014, la producción global de granos de cacao se incrementó en un 32 por ciento, de 3.3 a 4.5 millones de toneladas – mientras la huella del uso de suelo de plantaciones de cacao  creció en un 37 por ciento – de 7.6 a 10.4 millones de hectáreas” (iii) La producción de cacao ha estado creciendo desde 2007 hasta ahora en países como Papua Nueva Guinea, Malasia, Republica Dominicana, Liberia, Uganda, Colombia, Sierra Leona, probablemente tensionando aún más allí, bosques vulnerables.

Indonesia: Indonesia es notoria por su deforestación a causa del aceite de palma, madera y papel. Sin embargo, la producción de cacao se ha estado expandiendo También aquí y es el tercer país productor de cacao en el mundo. Entre 1988 y 2007, un Estimado de 0.7 millones de hectáreas de bosques indoneses fueron despejados para la producción de cacao, lo que equivale al 9% del total nacional de la deforestación para cultivos (iv) La deforestación que muestran nuestros mapas arriba están en la “isla de cacao” de Sulawesi, de donde proviene la mayor parte de las 850,000 toneladas anuales de cacao que produce Indonesia (v). En 2017, cerca al 63% de la producción de cacao de Indonesia se concentra en la Isla de Sulawesi. Las provincias en Sulawesi que producen la mayor parte de cacao están en el Sulawesi Oeste (18 % del total de Indonesia), Sulawesi Sudeste (17%) y Sulawesi Sud (16% (vi). Un experto le comento a Mighty Earth que a excepción de las planicies aluviales en la región Norte de Mamuju (Costa Oeste, colindante a Borneo) que fue parcialmente deforestada a mitad de los 1990’s por empresas de aceite de palma, casi toda la deforestación en Sulawesi es por el cacao, especialmente en las Colinas (en general todo lo que está 20 kilómetros atrás de la línea costera) (vii)

Camerún: El cacao también se ha convertido en impulsor de la deforestación en la Cuenca del Congo, los grandes bosques tropicales más intactos del mundo. Las estadísticas del grano de cacao de ITC muestran un incremento en las exportaciones de Camerún de 131,075 en 2007 a 263,746en 2016, lo que sugiere que el doble de árboles de cacao fueron pantados (nótese que la cosecha empieza de 3-5 anos después de realizada la plantación, algunos de los cuales fue probablemente en los bosques. En 2012, el gobierno de Camerún anuncio planes de incrementar la producción de árboles de cacao de alrededor de 225,000 toneladas anuales a 600,000 toneladas para 2020, un movimiento que pondría más bosques en riesgo. (lo que, sin embargo, de acuerdo al director general de la Corporación de Cacao de Camerún, estos planes de expandir el cacao se quedan cortos) (viii) Ya en 2014 más del 11% de la huella del uso de suelo de la producción de cultivo en Camerún fue para el cacao. La deforestación que muestran nuestros mapas arriba es en la división Manyu de la provincia de la región sudeste de Camerún. Manyu y Meme son las dos divisiones en Camerún con la más alta producción de cacao (ix) Se dice que la provincia de la región sud-oeste produce aproximadamente la mitad del cacao de Camerún. (x) Manfe es la capital del cacao en la división Manyu. Desde noviembre de 2016, han ocurrido enfrentamiento violentos entre separatistas y las fuerzas de seguridad. Estos enfrentamientos cortan las rutas tradicionales para muchos de los compradores cameruneses y por esto, parte del cacao es reportado ilegalmente exportado a Nigeria (xi) En la vecina Nigeria, se estima que el cacao ha contribuido con un 8% de la deforestación nacional, 1990-2008 (xii).

Amazonas peruano: Los productor de cacao También se han establecido en sud América, especialmente en Perú. Las estadísticas del grano de cacao de ITC muestran un incremento de 4.263 toneladas en 2007 a 61,888 en 2016. Esto indicaría un aumento en 15 veces la producción de cacao. Las imágenes satelitales en 2012 atraparon in flagrante delito a United Cacao destruyendo cerca de 5000 acres de terreno para plantación de cacao, invadiendo el biodiverso bosque tropical amazónico en Perú. Las plantaciones de cacao en Perú alcanzaron a 129,842 hectáreas en 2016 (xiii) La deforestación que muestran nuestros mapas arriba fueron encontradas en las provincias de Ucayali, Huanuco y San Martin.

Ecuador: Las estadísticas de granos de cacao de exportación de ITC muestran un aumento de 80,093 en 2007 a 227,214 en 2016 casi el triple de aumento. El área cultivada de cacao en las provincias de Sucumbios, Orellana y Napo se incrementaron en 16,600 hectáreas en 2000-2008. El sector agricultor es el principal impulsor de la deforestación ecuatoriana, mediante el cultivo de pastizales para Ganado, cacao y aceite de palma. El cacao se produce sobre un área estimada de 16,100 hectáreas en la provincia de Sucumbios y 13,500 hectáreas en la provincia de Orellana. La deforestación mostrada en nuestros mapas arriba es en las provincias de Orellana y Sucumbios.


Bosques destruidos por el cacao  © Mighty Earth 2017

Bolsas de cacao siendo preparados para su envió © Mighty Earth 2017

Jaguar en Ecuador, © 123RF

Búfalo enano de Sulawesi, © 123RF

Perezoso peruano, © 123RF


Fuentes:

[i] Kroeger, A. et al. (2017) Eliminating Deforestation from the Cocoa Supply Chain. World Bank Group, March 2017.
[ii] http://ec.europa.eu/environment/forests/pdf/1.%20Report%20analysis%20of%20impact.pdf
[iii] https://resourcetrade.earth/stories/cocoa-trade-climate-change-and-deforestation#section-171 
[iv] FAOSTAT and European Commission. The impact of EU consumption on deforestation: Comprehensive analysis of the impact EU consumption on deforestation. 2013. Technical Report 063.
[v] https://www.rikolto.org/en/project/cocoa-sulawesi-indonesia
[vi] Indonesian Ministry of Agriculture, Directorate General of Estate Crops, Tree Crop Estate Statistics of Indonesia, 2015-2017 cocoa, http://bit.ly/2FUaEBO
[vii] Email exchange with Francois Ruf, February 2018.
[viii] Thomson Reuters Foundation, Extreme weather threatens Cameroon’s hopes of becoming a cocoa giant, 7 June 2017, http://tmsnrt.rs/2nhEXvn.
[ix] International Cocoa Organization (ICCO), Cameroon, http://bit.ly/2EJoYxz.
[x] Reuters, Unrest in Cameroon fuels cocoa smuggling to Nigeria, 16 January 2018, http://reut.rs/2BcYlBk.
[xi]Business in Cameroon, Cameroon’s cocoa production taken over by Nigeria, 29 July 2017, http://bit.ly/2sgGOFE.
Reuters, Unrest in Cameroon fuels cocoa smuggling to Nigeria, 16 January 2018, http://reut.rs/2BcYlBk.
[xii] www.ec.europa.eu/environment/forests/pdf/1.%20Report%20analysis%20of%20impact.pdf
[xiv] Satellite images in 2012 showed United Cacao destroying nearly 5000 acres of land for a cocoa plantation, encroaching on the carbon-rich, biodiverse Amazon rainforest in Perú: http://www.wri.org/blog/2015/06/zooming-%E2%80%9Csustainable%E2%80%9D-cocoa-producer-destroys-pristine-forest-peru.
See also: https://news.mongabay.com/2015/01/company-chops-down-rainforest-to-produce-sustainable-chocolate/ and http://maaproject.org/2015/image-9-cacao-tamshiyacu/  for how Matt Finer of the Amazon Conservation Association used Landsat imagery to chronicle the clearing month-by-month and prove that the área was previously primary forest. Meanwhile, Greg Asner of Stanford University’s Carnegie Institution for Science used airborne LiDAR technology to estimate that the patch of forest contained an average of 122 metric tons of carbon per hectare (54.4 tons per acre).” (WRI: http://www.wri.org/blog/2015/08/how-much-rainforest-chocolate-bar and https://cao.carnegiescience.edu/ ).
[xv] UNDP and Ecuadorian Ministry of the Environment (MAE), Sustainable Development of the Ecuadorian Amazon: integrated management of multiple use landscapes and high value conservation forests, March 2015, http://bit.ly/2mE6Sp2.
[xvi] Revista Nera, Oswaldo Viteri Salazar and Jesús Ramos-Martín, Organizational structure and commercialization of coffee and cocoa in the northern amazon región of Ecuador, January-April 2017, http://bit.ly/2Dd4Wyb.


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