Liviya James

Trader Tracking - Palm Oil

Trader Tracker - Palm Oil


Each month, we rank the palm oil traders based on how they are responding to the cases of deforestation and peat development in our reports.


Analisis Baru: Pembangkit Listrik Tenaga Air Batang Toru ‘Tidak Dibutuhkan’

Memberikan Suplai Tenaga Berlebih dan mengancam kepunahan kera besar pertama yang tercatat sejarah

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JAKARTA, 22 JANUARI 2020Laporan yang akan dirilis oleh konsultansi internasional terkemuka menyatakan bahwa proyek pembangkit listrik tenaga air Batang Toru senilai 1.6 juta dollar Amerika yang direncanakan untuk dibangun di Tapanuli Selatan, Sumatra Utara, bukan hanya tidak diperlukan untuk memenuhi kebutuhan listrik Indonesia atau Sumatra Utara di masa depan, tetapi juga mengancam ekosistem lokal serta orangutan Tapanuli yang terancam kritis. Laporan tersebut menemukan bahwa para pendukung dam telah merepresentasikan secara keliru, melebih-lebihkan, dan membuat-buat alasan untuk pembangunan dam.

Laporan yang berjudul “Analysis of Electricity Demand in North Sumatra Province and the Planned Batang Toru Hydroelectric Power Plant’s Impacts,” (Analisis Kebutuhan Listrik di Provinsi Sumatra Utara dan Dampak Rencana Pembangkit Listrik Tenaga Air Batang Toru) oleh penulis Dr. David Brown menemukan bahwa:

  1. Sumatra Utara hampir sepenuhnya terelektrifikasi, dan pemadaman bergilir sudah tidak terlalu banyak terjadi. Provinsi ini bahkan memiliki surplus energi. Dengan tambahan pembangkit listrik peak power bertenaga gas di 2017 dan perbaikan lain dalam infrastruktur jaringan, pembangunan Batang Toru tidak akan meningkatkan akses atau rata-rata suplai energi di provinsi ini.
  2. Batang Toru tidak akan menggantikan “pembangkit listrik bertenaga diesel yang disewa dari luar negeri,” karena nyatanya, tidak ada pembangkit listrik seperti yang disebutkan di Sumatra Utara. Yang ada adalah pembangkit listrik terapung tenaga gas sewaan. Bagaimanapun, implikasi perubahan iklim dan neraca pembayaran dari menggunakan bahan bakar gas berbeda dengan diesel.
  3. Terdapat klaim yang menyatakan bahwa dengan mengoperasikan Batang Toru akan menghasilkan reduksi sangat kecil .0016 hingga .0022 gigaton emisi CO2 per tahun. Angka yang sangat kecil ini bahkan merupakan overestimasi. Reduksi yang mungkin terjadi oleh Batang Toru kemungkinan besar berada di antara angka .0007 hingga .001 gigaton CO2 per tahun. Terlepas dari itu, reduksi emisi potensial merepresentasikan hanya sepersepuluh dari emisi tahunan Indonesia, dengan biaya lingkungan yang sangat besar.
  4. Terlepas dari upaya para pemilik dan pendukung Batang Toru untuk memperlihatkan citra Batang Toru sebagai penghasil peak power, hanya setengah dari output-nya yang merupakan peak power. Sisanya adalah baseload power.
  5. Kebutuhan terhadap kapasitas peak power Batang Toru yang diusulkan sudah semakin bekurang, karena adanya pembangkit listrik terapung tenaga gas 240 MW, dan kemungkinan pembangunan pembangkit listrik peak power tenaga gas 800 MW yang akan mulai beroperasi pada 2022 (diperkirakan 200 MW), 2024 (diperkirakan 300 MW) dan 2028 (diperkirakan 300 MW). Seperti Batang Toru, pembangkit listrik tenaga gas ini menghasilkan peak power pada malam hari dan bisa juga pada siang hari jika dibutuhkan.
  6. Kontribusi Batang Toru yang diajukan pada baseload power provinsi sendiri sudah tidak diperlukan karena operasi pembangkit listrik geothermal 330 MW Sarulla pada 2017 dan 2018, dan mungkin akan makin tidak diperlukan lagi setelah “ekspansi” 300 MW Sarulla yang dimulai pada 2022, serta “kemungkinan besar” pembangunan pembangkit geothermal 240 MW di Sorik Marapi. Opsi lain yang baik untuk produksi peak power saat siang hari adalah tenaga matahari, yang perlu diberikan perhatian lebih lanjut oleh Direktorat Jenderal Ketenagalistrikan dan PLN.
  7. Batang Toru tidak akan menghentikan operasi pembangkit listrik tenaga diesel, dan juga tidak akan meringankan dampak neraca pembayaran negatif negara yang disebabkan oleh impor diesel. Tetapi, modal tinggi yang diperlukan untuk membangun Batang Toru akan berdampak pada keluarnya sejumlah besar dollar dari Indonesia ke rekening bank kontraktor Tiongkok yang akan membangun pembangkit listrik tersebut selain juga perusahaan induk Tiongkok yang memiliki mayoritas pembangkit listrik, seluruhnya merugikan neraca pembayaran Indonesia.
  8. Sinohydro, kontraktor yang akan membangun Batang Toru memiliki rekam jejak global terkait penipuan, praktik non-standar, dan korupsi di tiga benua, seluruhnya memperlihatkan bahwa Batang Toru memiliki resiko konstruksi dan operasi yang signifikan.
  9. Proyeksi Direktorat Jenderal Ketenagalistrikan yang terlalu besar tentang kebutuhan energi mungkin telah berkontribusi terhadap konstruksi pembangkit listrik di Sumatra Utara yang terlampau banyak. Hal ini mungkin memiliki sisi positif, seperti banyaknya pengganti yang tersedia untuk peak power (Poin 5 di atas) dan baseload power (Poin 6 di atas) yang seharusnya dihasilkan oleh Batang Toru, namun tanpa mengancam kekayaan nasional Indonesia yang terkenal, orangutan Tapanuli yang terancam punah.

Advokat perlindungan orangutan Tapanuli telah membaca penemuan-penemuan laporan ini dan menyerukan penghentian bagi proyek ini.

Laporan baru ini dibuat oleh Dr. David W. Brown, seorang principal di Brown Brothers Energy and Environment (B2E2). Dr. Brown, yang memiliki pengalaman selama 20 tahun dalam konsultansi bagi klien di sektor publik dan privat mengenai pengelolaan dan tantangan lingkungan sektor sumber daya alam Indonesia, akan hadir di Jakarta pada tanggal 22 Januari untuk mempresentasikan laporan tersebut dan mendiskusikan temuan-temuannyaa dengan pers lokal dan internasional. Ia juga akan ditemani oleh Mimi Surbakti dari Srikandi Lestari Sumatra Utara yang berfokus pada promosi pengembangan energi bersih, Tri Mumpuni, seorang ahli microhydro, dan Iqbal Damanik dari Auriga.

Latar Belakang

Dam hidroelektrik 1.6 miliar dollar Amerika Serikat North Sumatra Hydro Energy (NSHE) yang direncanakan pertama kali diumukan pada tahun 2012 dan dijadwalkan untuk rampung pada 2022.

Bagaimanapun, banyak pemberi pinjaman dana tradisional yang menolak untuk mendanai proyek ini dikarenakan oleh ancaman yang disproporsional bagi orangutan dan minimnya manfaat proyek. Bank pembangunan multilateral seperti World Bank Group telah menarik diri dari proyek, seperti bank-bank investasi swasta lain seperti Goldman Sachs. Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank juga dilaporkan telah menolak pendanaan proyek. Walaupun kontraktor milik Negara Tiongkok Sinohydro akan menangani konstruksi proyek, Bank of China baru-baru ini menyatakan bahwa mereka pun telah mengundurkan diri dari pendanaan proyek dam hidroelektrik ini.

Proyek ini akan meliputi pembangunan gardu listrik, gardu induk, terowongan headrace dan tailrace, reservoir, pelimpah serta infrastruktur pendukungnya, instalasi turbin, generator dan transformer, dan peletakan jalur transmisi.

Dampak Lingkungan

Sejak pengumuman pertamanya pada tahun 2012, proyek ini telah menjadi target kritik, terutama dari advokat lingkungan yang menyatakan bahwa dam ini akan mengancam ekosistem hutan di areanya selain juga kehidupan dan penghidupan penduduk lokal di area hilir sungai yang bergantung pada ekosistem sungai dalam cara mereka bertahan hidup, seperti contohnya perikanan, agrikultur, transportasi, dan kebutuhan air. Misi pencarian fakta pada tahun ini menemukan kekhawatiran yang signifikan dari warga lokal mengenai proyek ini. Banyak dari mereka yang telah bergabung dengan oposisi dari advokat-advokat lingkungan internasional untuk menuntut penghentian proyek.

Oposisi ini semakin intens setelah ditemukan bahwa area hutan Batang Toru, situs pembangunan proyek ini, juga merupakan habitat dari spesies orangutan yang baru ditemukan (Pongo tapanuliensis), yang hanya hidup di hutan tersebut. Para advokat lingkungan dan ahli fauna menyatakan bahwa konstruksi dam di Sungai Batang Toru akan memisahkan habitat orangutan ini secara permanen dengan mengurangi keterhubungan antara populasi dan berkontribusi terhadap kepunahan spesies langka ini yang saat ini memiliki populasi kurang dari 800 individu – kera besar paling terancam punah di dunia.

Selain merupakan habitat satu-satunya orangutan Tapanuli, ekosistem Batang Toru juga sangat beragam secara biologis, dengan 310 spesies burung, 80 spesies reptil, 64 spesies katak dan kodok, dan lebih dari 1000 spesies pohon.1 Area ini juga merupakan habitat dari enam spesies terancam dan rentan seperti siamang (Symphalangus syndactylus) dan owa ungko (Hylobates agilis) selain orangutan Tapanuli, menjadikannya salah satu dari sedikit area di dunia di mana tiga spesies kera bisa hidup berdampingan. Ekosistem Batang Toru juga merupakan habitat dari harimau Sumatra (Panthera tigris sumatrae), beruang madu (Helarctos malayanus), tapir (Tapirus indicus) dan burung-burung seperti Kuau Raja (Argusianus argus).

Analisis Baru

Setelah kontroversi berkelanjutan ini, laporan dari Brown bertujuan untuk memperhitungkan signifikansi pembangunan proyek NSHE ini dibandingkan dengan dampak negatif yang bisa dibawanya.

“Dari perspektif teknis, proyek pembangkit listrik tenaga air Batang Toru tampak dirancang dengan baik”, ungkap laporan tersebut. “Bagaimanapun, infrastruktur proyek tersebut akan menghancurkan atau mengisolasi tiga dari lima blok habitat spesies orangutan Tapanuli yang baru ditemukan—salah satu dari tujuh spesies kera besar di bumi (atau salah satu dari delapan jika manusia disertakan)”, berikut peringatan laporan tersebut.

Laporan ini mengidentifikasi ancaman spesifik pada orangutan Tapanuli, dengan menyebut bahwa spesies langka tersebut “hidup di dataran rendah di mana infrastruktur terkait proyek Batang Toru akan dibangun, serta tiga area dataran tinggi yang berdekatan.”

Orangutan Tapanuli sangat rentan karena populasinya yang terfragmentasi, dan laporan ini menyatakan bahwa proyek Batang Toru akan memengaruhi setidaknya salah satu dari tiga kelompok tersebut. “Pendukung dan penolak Batang Toru cenderung sepakat,” ungkap laporan ini, “bahwa infrastruktur dam akan menyebabkan perpindahan atau bahkan di beberapa kasus kematian dari orangutan yang tinggal di zona ketiga, selain juga isolasi genetis permanen orangutan di zona keempat dan kelima—dengan total lebih dari 70 individu.

Kesimpulan

Analisis baru ini sangat tegas terhadap temuannya: “Mungkin terdapat alasan untuk pembangunan dam listrik tenaga air Batang Toru ketika ia pertama kali diajukan pada 2012, sebelum adanya identifikasi orangutan Tapanuli dan dengan situasi energi yang sangat berbeda. Bagaimanapun, alasan dan kepentingan ini tidak lagi relevan pada tahun 2020.”

"Hasil riset ini membuktikan bahwa PLTA Batang Toru bukanlah infrastruktur yang dibutuhkan Sumatra Utara, sehingga selanjutnya kita harus membuktikan siapa yang diuntungkan dari dipaksakannya pembangunan ini,” ungkap Iqbal Damanik dari Auriga.

”Saya senang pembangkit [listrik] yang sustainable, environmentally friendly, dan pollutant-free. Microhydro dan minihydro, run off type adalah jawabannya sebab Indonesia [memiliki] banyak sungai dan ini harus dijaga dengan catchment area yang benar agar debit airnya terus mengalir seperti yang sudah direncanakan” ungkap Tri Mumpuni.

Mimi Surbakti juga menyatakan, ”Pemenuhan energi listrik harusnya tidak mengorbankan kelestarian lingkungan yang berdampak pada pemunahan satwa langka yang dilindungi. Pemerintah harusnya mampu memberikan keadilan ekologi untuk menyelamatkan ruang hidup bagi masyarakat dari sumber- sumber kehancuran dan eksploitasi alam.”

Kesimpulan dari laporan ini menyatakan bahwa, “Pendukung Batang Toru berargumen bahwa membawa spesies Orangutan Tapanuli ke ambang kepunahan adalah konsekuensi yang layak untuk diambil untuk mendukung kebutuhan tenaga masa kini dan masa depan di Sumatra Utara. Para pendukung ini mengutarakan mengenai apa yang mereka anggap sebagai manfaat dalam bidang mitigasi perubahan iklim, peak power, dan neraca pembayaran dari Batang Toru. Seluruh argumen tersebut telah dibahas dan dibuktikan kurang kuat.”(*)

Informasi lebih lanjut silakan hubungi :

Ayunda Putri
Image Dynamics
0812 200 1411 [email protected]


New Analysis: Batang Toru Hydroelectric Plant 'Unnecessary'

Will oversupply power and threaten first great ape extinction in recorded history

Baca dalam Bahasa Indonesia

JAKARTA -- A soon-to-be-released report by a leading international consultancy warns that the proposed USD 1.6 billion Batang Toru hydroelectric project in South Tapanuli Regency, North Sumatra, is not only entirely unnecessary for meeting Indonesia or North Sumatra’s future energy needs, but is also a critical threat to the local ecosystem and the critically endangered Tapanuli orangutan. The report finds that the dam’s backers have mischaracterized, exaggerated, or just manufactured much of the rationale for the dam.

The report, entitled “Analysis of Electricity Demand in North Sumatra Province and the Planned Batang Toru Hydroelectric Power Plant’s Impacts,” and authored by Dr. David Brown finds that:

  1. North Sumatra is almost fully electrified, and rolling blackouts are largely a thing of the past. The province has a power surplus. In view of the addition of gas-fired peak power capacity added in 2017 and ongoing improvements in grid infrastructure, the building of Batang Toru would not materially improve access to nor the regularity of power supply in the province.
  2. Batang Toru will not replace “diesel power plants rented from overseas,” as there are no such plants in North Sumatra. There is a rented floating gas-fired power plant. But the climate change and balance of payments implications of burning gas are quite different from those of burning diesel.
  3. It is claimed that the commissioning of Batang Toru would result in reduction of a very modest .0016 to .0022 gigatonnes of annual CO2 emissions per year. But even these are overestimates. Reductions made possible by Batang Toru are more likely to be on the order of .0007 to .001 gigatonnes of CO2 annually. Regardless, potential emissions reductions represent on the order of just one tenth of one percent of Indonesia’s annual emissions but come with enormous environmental cost.
  4. In spite of the efforts of the owners and proponents of Batang Toru to tout the proposed dam as a provider of peak power, only half of the plant’s output would be peak power. The remainder is baseload power.
  5. The need for Batang Toru’s proposed peak power capacity is already diminishing, due to the existence of a 240 MW floating gas plant, and the likely future construction of 800 MW in new gas fired peak power which will come on line in 2022 (200 MW), 2024 (300 MW) and 2028 (300 MW). Like Batang Toru, these gas plants produce peak power during the night and could also produce power during the day, if needed.
  6. As for Batang Toru’s proposed contribution to the province’s baseload power, this is already being rendered unnecessary by the 330 MW Sarulla geothermal power plant which came on line in 2017 and 2018, and could be rendered even more superfluous by a 300 MW “expansion” in capacity at Sarulla starting in 2022, as well as a the “high possibility” of 240 MW in new geothermal power at Sorik Marapi. Another excellent option for the production of power during the day would be solar power; the report recommends that the Directorate General of Electricity and PLN should give greater consideration to solar power.
  7. Batang Toru will not put diesel power plants out of business, and thus will not alleviate the negative balance of payment impact to the nation caused by the import of diesel. However, the high capital costs of building Batang Toru will lead to the outflow of dollars from Indonesia and into the bank accounts of the Chinese contractor that will build the plant, as well as the Chinese holding company that owns the majority of the plant, all to the detriment of Indonesia’s balance of payments.
  8. Sinohydro, the contractor that is building Batang Toru has a global track record of fraud, non- standard practices, and corruption on three continents, all of which suggests that Batang Toru has significant construction and operations risks.
  9. The Directorate General of Energy’s overly robust projections of power demand have led to an overbuilding of power plants in North Sumatra. This may be a blessing in disguise, as it could mean that there are many excellent substitutes available for the peak power (Point 5 above) and baseload power (Point 6 above) that Batang Toru aims to produce without threatening one of Indonesia’s world famous natural treasure, the endangered Tapanuli orangutan.

Advocates for protecting the Tapanuli orangutan have seized on the report’s findings and called for a halt to the project.

The new report was produced by Dr. David W. Brown, a principal at Brown Brothers Energy and Environment (B2E2). Dr. Brown, who has 20 years of experience in advising public and private sector clients on the governance and environmental challenges of Indonesia's natural resource sectors, will appear in Jakarta on January 22 to present the report and discuss its findings with the local and international press. He will be joined by Mimi Surbakti from Srikandi Lestari Sumatera Utara who focuses on promoting the development of clean energy, Tri Mumpuni, a microhydro expert, as well as by Iqbal Damanik from Auriga.

Background

The planned USD 1.6 billion North Sumatra Hydro Energy (NSHE) hydroelectric dam was first announced in 2012 and is scheduled for completion by 2022.

However, many traditional infrastructure lenders have refused to fund the project because of the disproportionate threat to orangutans and lack of benefits. Multilateral development banks like the World Bank Group have pulled out of the project, as have other private investment banks like Goldman Sachs. The Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank has reportedly declined to finance the project. And while state-owned Chinese contractor Sinohydro has signed on to handle the project construction, the Bank of China recently communicated that it too has pulled its planned financing for the hydroelectric dam project.

The project will include the construction of a powerhouse, a substation, headrace and tailrace tunnels, a reservoir, spillway and related infrastructure, the installation of turbines, generators and transformers, and the laying of transmission lines.

Environmental Impact

Since it was first announced in 2012, the project has been the target of criticism, especially from environmentalists, who have said the dam would pose a threat to the area’s forest ecosystem and a potential risk to the lives and livelihoods of thousands of downstream local residents who rely on the river’s ecosystem for their survival for fisheries, agriculture, transport, and daily water needs. A fact- finding mission earlier this year found considerable apprehension about the project among local residents, many of whom have joined the opposition from international environmentalists in calling for the project to be halted.

The opposition intensified when it was discovered that the Batang Toru forest area, which is the project site, was also home to a newly discovered species of orangutan (Pongo tapanuliensis), which lives exclusively in that forest. Environmentalists and wildlife experts say the construction of the dam on the Batang Toru River would permanently fracture the orangutans’ habitat, decreasing connectivity between populations and contributing to the extinction of this rare species, which currently hosts a population fewer than 800 apes – and is the world’s most endangered great ape.

In addition to providing the Tapanuli orangutan’s only home, the Batang Toru ecosystem is biologically diverse with over 310 species of bird recorded, 80 species of reptiles, 64 species of frogs and toads, and more than 1,000 tree species.1 The area is also home to six other endangered and vulnerable primate species including siamangs (Symphalangus syndactylus) and agile gibbons (Hylobates agilis) in addition to the Tapanuli orangutan, making it one of the few areas in the world where three ape species coexist. The Batang Toru ecosystem is also home to other rare and threatened animal species including the Sumatran tiger (Panthera tigris sumatrae), the sun bear (Helarctos malayanus), the tapir (Tapirus indicus) and birds such as the Great Argus pheasant (Argusianus argus).

New Analysis

In light of the continued controversy, the Brown report sought to weigh the actual necessity of building the NSHE project against the harm it could cause.

“From an engineering standpoint, Batang Toru appears well-designed,” the report says. “However, the project’s infrastructure will destroy or isolate three out of five habitat blocks of a newly-discovered species, the Tapanuli orangutan, one of only seven species of Great Ape on Earth (or one of eight if humans are counted),” it warns.

The report identifies specific threats to the Tapanuli orangutan, noting that the rare species specifically “lives in the lowlands where the infrastructure associated with Batang Toru is to be built, and in three areas of adjacent highlands.”

The Tapanuli is especially vulnerable due to its fragmented population, and the report finds that the project would impact at least three of the groups. “Even proponents and opponents of Batang Toru appear to agree,” the report says, “that the infrastructure of the dam will lead to the displacement, and in some cases, death of the orangutans living in the third zone, and the permanent genetic isolation of those living in the fourth and fifth zones, more than 70 individuals.”

Conclusion

The new analysis is clear in its findings: “There may have been a rationale for the Batang Toru hydroelectric dam when it was proposed in 2012, before the identification of the Tapanuli orangutan, and in a very different energy situation. But there’s no need for it in 2020.”

“This research shows that Batang Toru hydroelectric power plant is not a necessary infrastructure for North Sumatra. Going forward, we have to prove who gains the most benefits from this forced construction,” Iqbal Damanik from Auriga said.

“I am fond of sustainable, environmentally friendly, and pollutant-free power plants. Microhydro, minihydro, and run off type are the answers since there is a larger number of rivers in Indonesia that needs to be protected with proper catchment area in order to maintain the water debit to flow as planned,” said Tri Mumpuni.

Mimi Surbakti also stated, “The fulfillment of electrical energy demand should not sacrifice the environment, especially if it threatens the extinction of a protected species. The government should be able to give ecological justice to save the livelihoods of people from the sources of nature’s degradation and exploitation.”

The report’s conclusion says, “Proponents of Batang Toru argue that driving the Tapanuli orangutan toward extinction is a price worth paying because the project will help to meet the current and future power needs of North Sumatra province. These defenders raise what they perceive as the climate change mitigation, peak power, and balance of payments benefits of Batang Toru. All of these arguments have been examined in this paper, and all have been found wanting.”


Mighty Earth Calls on Indonesian Government to Release Imprisoned Journalist Philip Jacobson

As news broke of the arrest of Mongabay journalist Philip Jacobson, Mighty Earth CEO Glenn Hurowitz released the following statement:

“Indonesian President Jokowi came into office promising to fight corruption and uphold Indonesia’s democracy, but the arrest of prize-winning journalist Philip Jacobson undermines those commitments. Phil is a true champion of Indonesia’s natural resources and people, and instead of being detained under suspicious circumstances, he should be celebrated. We call on the Indonesian government to live up to its commitments to free press and the values of Pancasila by undoing this great injustice and offense to Indonesian openness and releasing Phil immediately.

"That Phil's arrest should come on the same day that President Bolsonaro's regime charged American journalist Glenn Greenwald with bogus crimes is no coincidence. The idea that American allies like Brazil and Indonesia would even imagine arresting American journalists for doing their jobs shows a failure of leadership on the part of the United States, which has stood for freedom of the press for generations. President Trump and Secretary of State Pompeo cannot just go soft when it comes to defending Americans in trouble overseas, and they have a sacred obligation to defend these unjustly imprisoned Americans.

“A free press is essential to creating the transparency and accountability necessary for both responsible governance and environmental stewardship, and Mighty Earth supports the right of journalists everywhere to conduct their work without fear of violence, persecution, or reprisal.”

Photo via Mongabay


Six cartes pour expliquer la crise du cacao en Côte d’Ivoire

Mighty s’est associé à MapHubs pour cartographier la déforestation liée à la culture du cacao en Côte d’Ivoire. Leo Bottrill et Kris Carle, les fondateurs de MapHubs, expliquent en six cartes comment cela a été rendu possible. Lire Plus


Rapport : Mensonges sous emballage

décembre 2018

Malgré les engagements pris l’an dernier par les grands chocolatiers en faveur d’un cacao sans déforestation, le dernier rapport de Mighty Earth révèle que la déforestation liée au cacao s’est poursuivie en Afrique de l’Ouest et s’est même intensifiée dans certains endroits. Lire Plus


Intervention rapide : rapport spécial cacao

Janvier 2020

90 % des forêts primaires d’Afrique de l’Ouest ont été détruites. Le rapport Intervention rapide utilise les données sur la déforestation enregistrée entre novembre 2017, date de la signature de l’ICF, et novembre 2019 pour évaluer les risques de déforestation liés au cacao dans sept coopératives certifiées de Côte d’Ivoire.


Stretching the possibilities for a sustainable rubber industry in 2020

The year 2020 has long held a prominent place in the popular imagination. For some, it has been pegged as a staging post for human progress in the modern era, often tied to aspirational global development targets and groundbreaking technological advances. For others, it has portended a dystopian future of post-apocalyptic chaos, ecocide, and the subjugation of humans by AI machines.

In reality, the dawn of 2020 sees the world in a mixed state of affairs. We have seen new technologies enter our daily lives that most of us wouldn’t have dreamt of even a decade ago, facilitating everything from faster communications to better medical treatments. And impressive progress has been made in many parts of the world in the fight against endemic hunger, disease and poverty.

Yet, at the same time, the health of our planet is in a perilous state. Greenhouse gas emissions continue to rise, pushing us ever closer towards a tipping point of runaway global heating. And the Earth’s wondrous biodiversity – upon which we all depend – is diminishing at a catastrophic rate, largely due to human activity. Our increased technological sophistication has arguably not been accompanied with any greater collective wisdom as a species about how we value, respect and manage nature.

One of the critical threats to both natural habitats and the planet’s delicate climate balance is the loss of tropical forests, which are home to roughly half of the terrestrial species on Earth, and act as a massive sink for carbon dioxide.  Although the loss of these precious ecosystems is down to a combination of factors, one of the main drivers of deforestation has been the production of forest and agricultural commodities including palm oil, soy, beef, cocoa, cane sugar and natural rubber.

Complex supply chains have been constructed and maintained by large corporations to transform raw agricultural and forest commodities into finished consumer goods, generally exported for global markets. These companies are crucial to international efforts to protect tropical forest ecosystems. Consumer country governments in North America and Europe have largely failed to regulate to prevent “embedded deforestation” in imported goods; while some governments in tropical regions lack either the capacity, or political will, to protect their forests.

It is for this reason that Mighty Earth, while always seeking to hold governments to account and pushing for stronger environmental laws and regulations, also engages robustly with private sector companies that produce, trade, process and sell agricultural and forest commodities originating from the tropics. Getting companies to adopt sustainable sourcing and processing practices is essential for ensuring the long-term future of tropical woodland habitats.

A great example of this is natural rubber. Used predominantly in tires – but also in consumer goods such as shoes, garden hoses, condoms, outdoor clothing, and basketballs – natural rubber is derived from latex tapped from the hevea brasiliensis tree grown exclusively in tropical forest ecosystems, mainly in Asia.

Neglected as a driver of deforestation until recent years, companies within the natural rubber global value chain largely flew under the public radar. This started to change in the last 10 years, when campaign groups such as Global Witness began to highlight widespread deforestation, land grabbing and serious human rights abuses linked to the expansion of rubber plantations in Southeast Asia. This also elevated the work of local civil society organisations (CSOs) in the region that had long been resisting the often highly aggressive incursions of rubber companies onto community land and forests – work which Mighty Earth continues to support today.

Since that time, a number of companies operating within the natural rubber industry have woken up to the challenges of ensuring rubber is produced and processed in ways which don’t damage the environment, harm vulnerable local communities, or exploit small farmers, workers and indigenous people.  Many have sought to engage with CSOs to understand and grapple with the risks they face, and develop “Zero deforestation” and “No exploitation” corporate policies and practices.

In March 2019, a number of companies representing rubber producers, processors, tire makers, and auto manufacturers founded a joint platform along with a group of CSOs, including Mighty Earth, with the goal of making the rubber industry fully sustainable. The new body, the Global Platform for Sustainable Natural Rubber (GPSNR) has since been working collaboratively to devise concrete measures to transform the industry. This includes everything from creating a future vision, or “desired state,” to looking at systems for increasing transparency, traceability and accountability throughout rubber supply chains, to developing company policy guidance for sustainable rubber procurement, to improved capacity building for both large and small scale growers.

As we approach the anniversary of the GPSNR in March 2020, we can reflect on the fact that a lot of good work has been done in the first year of its existence. This is both in terms of concrete outputs, as well as in the evolution of increasing trust and cooperation between the different stakeholders on the Platform. Nonetheless, we recognise that much more remains to be done. Some companies within the GPSNR still do not have their own internal sustainable rubber policies, which is highly problematic.  In addition, a key pillar of the GPSNR – an effective grievance mechanism to call out companies that violate the principles, codes and policies of GPSNR – is still undeveloped. Also troubling is that the Platform does not yet appear close to devising effective systems for monitoring the performance of its members with regards to sustainability. Furthermore, no companies from the world’s largest rubber market, China, currently participate in the GPSNR.

External challenges also remain. As with other tropical forest and agricultural commodities, some countries where rubber is produced suffer from endemic corruption and poor enforcement of forest protection laws and community land rights. In addition, low rubber prices create immense challenges for smallholder farmers, or even larger companies, to invest in new systems, technologies and practices for improving the sustainability of rubber cultivation.

Despite these challenges, we remain positively engaged in GPSNR, including its working groups and Executive Committee, and believe we can build on the momentum created in 2019. Mighty Earth’s vision for 2020 is to see all GPSNR member companies adopting sustainable natural rubber policies, the establishment of a credible grievance mechanism, the development of effective monitoring systems, participation of smallholder farmer representatives in the Platform, and the integration of Chinese companies.

We will also be supporting GPSNR’s efforts to deliver tools for increased supply chain traceability and transparency, such as the SPOTT transparency toolkit initiative, with all member companies fully disclosing key information on the origins and sustainability of their natural rubber within a year. We also hope 2020 will be the year when GPSNR members will step up boldly to call for regulation, as the bulk of the cocoa industry has done, as well as key parts of the coffee sector. The rubber industry can help build momentum towards binding, fair, effective regulation that creates a level playing field, where forward-looking companies are not penalized by having to compete with rogue actors who don’t respect the environment or human rights.

We believe all these things and more are achievable in 2020, and will continue to try to stretch the possibilities for transforming the natural rubber industry this year.

The future of rubber starts now!


Tyson: Keep Your Promise

To mark the one year anniversary of Tyson Foods’ announcement of a partnership to implement its sustainable feed sourcing commitment, Mighty Earth Campaign Director Lucia von Reusner released the following statement:

One year ago, Tyson Foods announced it would begin implementing its critically important commitment to improve farming practices on 2 million acres of U.S. corn used in animal feed by 2020. Mighty Earth subsequently decided to halt its campaign urging Tyson to clean up water pollution caused by its vast animal feed supply chain, recognizing that change takes time.

Mighty Earth’s investigations into corporate pledges to end deforestation by 2020 have found an alarming lack of follow-through, with companies continuing to fund suppliers known to be burning forests around the world. However, since its announcement, Tyson has provided no further detail or reporting on its commitment. At a time when the public is rightly skeptical of corporate sustainability initiatives that accountability or visible action, such silence is unacceptable.

As Tyson’s 2020 deadline approaches, it is critical that the company report on its progress toward improving farming practices for U.S corn.

Today, on the anniversary of its much-publicized commitment, we are calling on Tyson to provide a public update with concrete information that includes: the locations and total number of acres engaged, the practices implemented and environmental outcomes achieved for those acres (with a particular focus on reducing nutrient runoff), and specific methods for tracking and verifying environmental improvements. This information is necessary for customers, employees, local communities, and shareholders to know where and how Tyson is delivering on its sustainability promise.

Tyson Foods has a long track record as one of the most polluting companies in America. Overcoming this reputation will require transparency and clear evidence of verifiable changes that are reported to the public.

Join us in urging Tyson to keep its promise, sign the petition!

 


Mighty Earth “Cocoa Accountability Map” Brings Unprecedented Transparency to Cocoa Industry in Côte d’Ivoire

(Version française ici)

Interactive map includes never-before-released information, including locations of Rainforest Alliance and Fairtrade certified co-ops and sourcing information for major chocolate companies.

In a historic first, Mighty Earth today announced the public release of its Cocoa Accountability Map for Côte d’Ivoire, an interactive map and integrated database covering almost 5,000 cocoa co-ops in the world’s largest cocoa-producing country.

Datasets included in the Cocoa Accountability Map that have never before been made public include the lists of co-ops certified by Rainforest Alliance/UTZ and Fairtrade International as well as supply chain info tracking Hershey’s and Cemoi chocolate down to the co-op level. Co-op information for chocolate giants like Lindt, Nestle, Valhrona, and others are also included.

“For the first time, companies and certification organizations have made their supply chain information available, allowing us – and now anyone, anywhere – to trace cocoa better and faster,” said Mighty Earth Senior Campaign Director Etelle Higonnet. “In an industry still battling the scourges of child labor and deforestation, transparency is a vital first step to accountability and improvement. The Cocoa Accountability Map is essentially doing what the industry and government promised they would do two years ago: create a joint monitoring mechanism for cocoa. They didn’t do it, so we are doing it for them.”

Mighty Earth’s Cocoa Accountability Map will break new ground and bring an unprecedented level of transparency to the cocoa industry. The map:

  • Shows deforestation alerts nationwide in Côte d’Ivoire and will refresh automatically every 2 weeks, using the IMAGES platform from Vivid Economics and Remote Sensing Applications Consultants, a tool sponsored by the UK Space Agency.
  • Shows the land-use for approximately 1/3 of the cocoa region and will expand to cover the entire country by around March
  • Shows almost all the cocoa co-ops in the country, with almost 5,000 included along with information such as:
    • Name, contact information, number of farmers, area covered, and registration number of the co-op;
    • Whether or not the co-op is certified by Rainforest Alliance/UTZ or Fairtrade International;
    • How close each co-op is to a protected area;
    • And, vitally, who the co-op sells to, wherever we were given that information. Mighty Earth has incorporated supply chain info down to the co-op level for Lindt, Cemoi, Nestle, Hershey’s, Valhrona, and others. Mars has begun the process of providing its information. Certain companies such as Blommer refused to embrace traceability and publish supply chain information. Some companies like ECOM have pledged to do so but have not been as fast as Nestle and others.

“The Cocoa Accountability Map will be a tremendous tool in helping to clean up the cocoa industry,” said Higonnet. “The government and industry can use this directly to check sourcing of their materials. A journalist can use this map to see where deforestation is happening before going to investigate the problem on the ground. An activist can conduct research into a problem like child labor or deforestation and then use the map to quickly get a sense of who might be buying the resultant goods. It’s a game-changer.”

“We applaud the companies that have participated and thank the government of Côte d’Ivoire’s Ministry of Agriculture and Conseil Café Cacao for their courageous leadership in providing the information about their thousands of co-ops, but more must be done. The governments of Ghana, Ecuador, and Cameroon must take similar steps to increase transparency – it is a real shame that Ghana is so far behind Côte d’Ivoire now. Companies like Ferrero and Touton, which never responded to our request for co-op data, must follow suit. And companies like Blommer Chocolate, which flat-out refused to participate, must modernize their thinking and embrace the transparency revolution sweeping their industry. Most crucially, the three largest traders – Barry Callebaut, Cargill, and Olam – must disclose the co-ops they source from.”

Mighty Earth has released this new transparency tool just ahead of the peak deforestation season in Cote d’Ivoire and Ghana – January to March – and ahead of a key meeting taking place, where major donors and Ivorian and Ghanaian government officials will be meeting to discuss the future of monitoring deforestation for the Cocoa and Forests Initiative (CFI). The Cocoa Accountability Map is a growing, evolving, and continuously improving tool – any and all additional information sent to Mighty Earth to complete the data will be welcome.


Interactive Map Sets New Standard for Cocoa Transparency and Accountability

For two years now, the cocoa industry and government of Cote d’Ivoire have promised in vain to develop joint monitoring mechanisms, in order to make good on their “Cocoa & Forests Initiative” November 2017 promise of ending deforestation in cocoa. They pledged the “Adoption of a transparent satellite-based monitoring system, the results of which are independently validated, and which provide a deforestation alert, complemented with ground-truthing, as soon as possible upon signature of this Framework, which will be made publicly available for all stakeholders to measure and monitor progress on the overall deforestation target.” This has not happened yet.

Failure to monitor has real impacts. Without data, without knowledge about the problem of forest destruction, without clarity on supply chains, much-needed solutions have remained incomplete or illusory. During the two long years since the Cocoa & Forests Initiative (CFI) came into being and monitoring was promised, many more forests have been lost, with Ghana and Cote d’Ivoire in fact boasting the top two increases in rates of deforestation in the world in 2018. Rather than ending deforestation, these countries in a way became the two world champions in the realm of speeding up deforestation.

A new peak deforestation season is upon us. Every year, in Ghana and Cote d’Ivoire, January through March represents the most dangerous and destructive time of year for forests.

We at Mighty Earth could not let this high-risk season go by without trying to do the basic work of a joint monitoring mechanism, to the best of our ability. The new Cocoa Accountability Map seeks to spark a revolution in traceability and transparency in the Ivorian cocoa industry, in the hopes that this trend of openness will spread throughout the country – the world’s top cocoa producer – and then to Ghana and beyond. Our map combines information about where deforestation is taking place, where cocoa is located, where purchase points called “cooperatives” are located, and who is certifying or buying from those cocoa cooperatives.

Happily, we were not alone. The Ivorian Ministry of Agriculture and Conseil Café Cacao participated by publishing information on thousands of coop locations, names, and contacts. We urge Ghana, Ecuador, Cameroon, and other cocoa-producing governments to take the same bold step.

Moreover, for the very first time, Rainforest Alliance, UTZ, and Fair Trade courageously provided us with information on all Ivorian coops they certified. Indeed, UTZ even provided information on coops that were de-certified. Beyond this, progressive companies such as Lindt, Nestle, Hershey’s, Cemoi, Puratos, Halba, and AlterEco, also published some or all of the coops they source from in Cote d’Ivoire. We call on these actors to deepen their leadership and make this traceability global by publishing all the cocoa coops they source from, directly or indirectly, updated annually, worldwide.

Other companies like Mars and ECOM indicated that they will soon publish the information regarding which cocoa coops they source from in Cote d’Ivoire and beyond. We urge them to do so as rapidly as possible. Forests are being felled for cocoa every passing day in West and Central Africa, Latin America, and Asia, and without the full cooperation of all major cocoa and chocolate companies, impunity will thrive and accountability will be harder to achieve for the sector.

Still more companies have not yet answered one way or the other, such as Ferrero, Mondelez, Olam, or Touton – or like Blommer, which outright refused to participate in this level of transparency on their supply chains. We ask these groups what they are hiding, and call on them to become good corporate citizens and to embrace traceability, now. Every company is needed. Crimes and abuses thrive in opacity, just as solutions thrive in the sunlight.

In addition, Mighty Earth implores all donors currently funding relevant mapping exercises: public money must go to public good. If you are financing satellite providers or analysts currently working on landuse maps or deforestation alerts, their information must be open to the public.

Moreover, we call on all stakeholders in all cocoa-producing countries, whether they be in industry, government, or civil society, to assist Mighty Earth in helping the traceability revolution to flourish. This can become a crowdsourcing exercise in the best sense of the word. Though our map is by no means perfect now, since many elements remain incomplete and we rely on others to provide accurate data, we hope and believe that with more actors coming together to help, it will be possible to continuously improve the map. This map can be handed over for free to parties staffing the long-promised joint monitoring mechanism for Cote d’Ivoire, once it is up and running. Until that mechanism is established, we at Mighty Earth will do our best to continue to work towards accountability and reporting.

A few words about the map itself. First: The deforestation alerts on this map refresh automatically every two weeks. (It will be vital for the Ivorian monitoring system, once it is set up, to step up vigilance during the January – March peak deforestation season, and to prioritize engagement in risky areas near protected areas and near new deforestation alerts.) Second: The land use elements of this map show which crops can be found where. This currently covers one third of the cocoa belt, but will extend to cover all the cocoa belt by around March 2020 (providing useful information not only to the cocoa sector but also to other forest-risk commodities such as palm oil and rubber). Ideally the land use elements of this map will eventually allow for differentiating between full-sun monoculture cocoa vs more earth-friendly shade-grown cocoa, called “agroforestry”. Third: Certification elements of this map are near-complete though they will be reviewed to ensure no errors have been made. Fourth: The map delineates boundaries of national parks amongst other ecologically important areas, and will add in what are considered locally to be “sacred forests” if possible, through community mapping. Fifth: Coop data and supply chain information about which companies is buying from which coops, will be continuously improved, as new information is made available by the government and industry. Together, we will have the ability to transparently monitor and stop deforestation, and ensure that CFI signatories detect where cocoa farms are expanding into forested lands so they can immediately stop it, and remedy the deforestation.

As we move into the future: a successful monitoring system must not only analyze and visualize deforestation/cocoa/supply chain data all the way down to the farm level (which is even further than the coop level), but also engage in field visits, and maintain a system of accountability for wrongdoing where companies and entities involved in buying or selling deforestation cocoa compensate for and remedy harms found in their supply chains. We hope that all deforestation monitoring mechanisms worldwide will also address child labor and human rights issues which often go hand in hand with environmental abuses, and that the mechanisms will be established so that they can easily communicate with each other and share information across databases, with compatible systems.

Several companies are already doing this kind of monitoring for their own supply chains, leading to duplication of efforts and wasted money and time. By acting together and combining forces, we can achieve harmonization, cost-savings, and efficiency in one unified database.

We at Mighty Earth have done the best we could with what we had. We now urge the industry, governments, civil society, and donors to join us, and help move the needle for an even better traceability and transparency revolution in chocolate.


La « Carte responsabilité pour le cacao » de Mighty Earth instaure une transparence sans précédent dans le secteur du cacao en Côte d’Ivoire

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Cette carte interactive comporte des informations inédites, comme les emplacements des coopératives certifiées Rainforest Alliance et Fairtrade et des informations sur les sources d’approvisionnement des principales entreprises de chocolat

WASHINGTON, DC ET ABIDJAN, CÔTE D’IVOIRE — Mighty Earth a annoncé aujourd’hui la publication de sa Carte responsabilité pour le cacao pour la Côte d’Ivoire. Cette carte interactive, associée à une base de données intégrée listant près de 5 000 coopératives de cacao dans le plus grand pays producteur de cacao au monde constitue une première historique.

Les jeux de données inclus dans la Carte responsabilité pour le cacao sont inédits. Ils comprennent les listes des coopératives certifiées par Rainforest Alliance/UTZ et Fairtrade International ainsi que des informations retraçant la chaîne d’approvisionnement en chocolat de Hershey’s et Cémoi jusqu’au niveau de la coopérative. Des informations sur les coopératives de géants du chocolat comme Lindt, Nestlé, Valhrona et d’autres sociétés y figurent également.

« Pour la première fois, des entreprises et des organismes de certification ont mis à disposition des informations sur leur chaîne d’approvisionnement. Ceci nous permet, et permet maintenant à tous et partout, d’améliorer la traçabilité du cacao et plus rapidement », a déclaré Etelle Higonnet, directrice de campagne senior pour Mighty Earth. « Dans un secteur qui lutte encore contre les fléaux du travail des enfants et de la déforestation, la transparence est un premier pas essentiel vers une responsabilisation de l’industrie et une amélioration de ses pratiques. En substance, la Carte responsabilité pour le cacao fait ce que le secteur du chocolat et le gouvernement ont promis de faire il y a deux ans : créer un mécanisme conjoint de surveillance pour le cacao. Comme ils ne l’ont pas fait, nous le faisons pour eux. »

La Carte responsabilité pour le cacao de Mighty Earth ouvrira de nouvelles perspectives et apportera un niveau de transparence sans précédent dans le secteur du cacao. La carte :

  • Indique les alertes de déforestation pour l’ensemble de la Côte d’Ivoire et se réactualise automatiquement toutes les deux semaines à l’aide de la plateforme IMAGES de Vivid Economics et de Remote Sensing Applications Consultants, un outil financé par l’Agence spatiale du Royaume-Uni.
  • Indique l’occupation des sols pour près d’un tiers de la région productrice de cacao, avec une couverture de l’ensemble de la Côte d’Ivoire prévue pour mars prochain ;
  • Indique la quasi-totalité des coopératives de cacao du pays, avec près de 5 000 coopératives répertoriées et des informations telles que :
    • Le nom, les coordonnées, le nombre de cultivateurs, la superficie couverte et le numéro d’enregistrement de la coopérative ;
    • La certification ou non de la coopérative par Rainforest Alliance/UTZ, ou Fairtrade International ;
    • La proximité de chaque coopérative par rapport à une aire protégée ;
  • Et, point essentiel, les clients de la coopérative, quelle que soit la source de cette information. Mighty Earth a intégré des renseignements sur la chaîne d’approvisionnement jusqu’au niveau de la coopérative pour Lindt, Cémoi, Nestlé, Hershey’s, Valhrona et d’autres sociétés. Mars a commencé à fournir ses informations. Certaines entreprises telles que Blommer ont refusé d'adopter la traçabilité et de publier des informations sur leur chaîne d'approvisionnement.

« La Carte responsabilité pour le cacao sera un outil formidable pour aider le secteur du cacao à assainir sa chaîne d’approvisionnement, poursuit Etelle Higonnet. Le gouvernement et le secteur du cacao peuvent s’en servir pour vérifier facilement la provenance de leur matière première. Une journaliste peut utiliser cette carte pour voir où la déforestation a lieu avant de se rendre sur le terrain pour mener son enquête. Un activiste peut faire des recherches sur un sujet comme le travail des enfants ou la déforestation puis utiliser la carte pour avoir rapidement une idée de qui pourrait acheter les produits qui en résultent. Ça change la donne ».

« Nous félicitons les entreprises qui ont participé et nous remercions le ministère ivoirien de l’Agriculture et le Conseil Café Cacao qui en fournissant des informations sur leurs milliers de coopératives ont fait preuve d’un courageux leadership. Mais il faut faire plus. Les gouvernements du Ghana, de l’Équateur et du Cameroun doivent prendre des mesures semblables pour améliorer leur transparence — il est vraiment dommage que le Ghana se retrouve à la traîne par rapport à la Côte d’Ivoire. Des entreprises comme Ferrero et Touton, qui n’ont jamais répondu à notre demande de données sur les coopératives, doivent emboîter le pas. Et des entreprises comme Blommer Chocolate, qui ont catégoriquement refusé de participer, doivent moderniser leur mode de pensée et se rallier à la révolution de la transparence qui secoue leur secteur. Plus important encore, les trois plus grands négociants, Barry Callebaut, Cargill et Olam, doivent rendre publics les noms des coopératives auprès desquelles ils s’approvisionnent ».

Mighty Earth a également lancé un appel à l’action pour ce secteur. « La World Cocoa Foundation, l’Association européenne pour le cacao et Caobisco doivent élaborer un protocole à l’échelle de la filière afin de rendre public l’ensemble des données sur les fournisseurs des sociétés d’ici le 30 mars, a déclaré Etelle Higonnet. En outre, nous demandons à la GISCO et à toutes les autres plateformes du même ordre d’obliger d’ici le 30 mars toute entreprise membre à divulguer ses données sur ses fournisseurs en remontant jusqu’à la coopérative de cacao ».

Mighty Earth a publié ce nouvel outil de transparence juste avant le début du pic saisonnier de déforestation en Côte d’Ivoire et au Ghana — de janvier à mars — et avant la tenue d’une importante réunion au cours de laquelle les principaux investisseurs et les représentants des gouvernements ivoirien et ghanéen se rencontreront pour débattre de l’avenir du suivi de la déforestation dans le cadre de l’Initiative Cacao et Forêts (ICF). La Carte responsabilité pour le cacao est un outil en croissance, en évolution et en amélioration constantes — toute information supplémentaire envoyée à Mighty Earth pour compléter ses données sera la bienvenue.


Rapid Response Special Report - Cocoa

January 2020

Ninety percent of West Africa’s primary forests have been destroyed. This Rapid Response report uses deforestation data between November 2017, when the CFI was signed, and November 2019 to assess cocoa-related deforestation risks in seven certified cooperatives in Côte d’Ivoire.


Africa: End Energy Poverty in Africa to Combat Climate Change

allAfrica | January 8, 2020 

For most Africans, burning charcoal and wood provides the sole source of energy. However, as these fires burn, black carbon and smoke accelerate climate change and are a source of serious health problems and a cause of ongoing forest destruction.

Nestlé ceases to source Brazil soy from Cargill

Feed Navigator | January 8, 2020 

The Wall Street Journal (WSJ) recently reported that the world's largest food and beverage company, Nestlé, has stopped butying Cargill's Brazilian soy because of concerns about the link to deforestation.

Read more.


Report: Behind the Wrapper

December 2018

Despite the chocolate industry’s pledge to cease sourcing cocoa linked to deforestation one year ago, a new Mighty Earth report finds that deforestation in West Africa for cocoa has continued, and in some cases has increased.